List of Dates and Events from Creation 4004 B.C. to 1 A.D. inc. 3 B.C. September 11 between 6:18 pm and 7:39 pm [Jerusalem time] – The Birth of Jesus

B.C. Dates Event
4004 October 22 GOD’S CREATION WEEK – ADAM and EVE [f.] created by God [generation 1]. [Genesis 1:1 – 2:3]. Creation week started after sunset at about 6 pm on Saturday October 22, 4004 B.C. [Jerusalem time].
4004-3940? The Fall of Man.
3940?-3934? Cain born to Adam and Eve [generation 2].
3933?-3927? Abel born to Adam and Eve [generation 2].
3926?-3920? Âwân [f.] born to Adam and Eve – 1st daughter [generation 2].
3905?-3899? Cain kills Abel.
3890? Cain marries Âwân.
3874 Seth born to Adam [age 130] and Eve [generation 2] [Genesis 5:3 – 4].
3870?-3864? Azûrâ [f.] born to Adam and Eve – 2nd daughter [generation 2].
3779?-3773? Seth marries his sister Azûrâ.
3769 Enos born to Seth [age 105] & Azûrâ [generation 3] [Genesis 5:6].
3760? Nôâm born to Seth & Azûrâ.
3699?-3693? Enos marries his sister Nôâm.
3679 Cainan [Kenan] born to Enos [age 90] & Nôâm [generation 4] [Genesis 5:9].
c. 3670 Mûalêlêth [Mualet] [f.] born to Enos & Nôâm.
3618?-3605? Cainan [Kenan] marries his sister Mûalêlêth [Mualet].
3615 Barakiel born to Enos & Nôâm.
3610 Barakiel marries ? [f.].
3609 Mahalaleel [Mahalalel] born to Cainan [Kenan] [age 70] & Mûalêlêth [Mualet] [generation 5] [Genesis 5:12].
c. 3602 Enan born to Cainan [Kenan] & Mûalêlêth [Mualet] [generation 5].
3600 Dinah [f.] born to Barakiel & ? [f.].
c. 3595 Mered born to Cainan [Kenan] & Mûalêlêth [Mualet] [generation 5].
c. 3588 Adah born to Cainan [Kenan] & Mûalêlêth [Mualet] [generation 5]. Later married Lamech [from the line of Cain] and had sons Jabal & Jubal..
c. 3581 Zillah born to Cainan [Kenan] & Mûalêlêth [Mualet] [generation 5]. Later married Lamech [from the line of Cain] and had Tubal – Cain & Naamah [f].
3555?-3549? Mahalaleel [Mahalalel] marries Dinah, the daughter of Barakiel, his father’s brother.
3550 Râsûjâl born to Cainan [Kenan] & Mûalêlêth [Mualet].
3547 Râsûjâl marries ? [f.].
3544 Jared born to Mahalaleel [Mahalalel] [age 65] & Dinah [generation 6] [Genesis 5:15].
3500 Baraka [f.] born to Râsûjâl & ? [f.].
3492?-3486? Jared marries Baraka, the daughter of Râsûjâl, his father’s brother.
3450 Danel born to Mahalaleel [Mahalalel] & Dinah.
3400 Danel marries ? [f.].
3382 ENOCH born to Jared [age 162] & Baraka [generation 7] [Genesis 5:18].
3350 Edna [f.] born to Danel & ? [f.].
3322 Enoch marries Edna, the daughter of Danel, his father’s brother.
3320 Azrial born to Jared & Baraka.
3319 Azrial marries ? [f.].
3317 METHUSELAH born to Enoch [age 65] & Edna [generation 8] [Genesis 5:21]. “Methuselah” can be translated “when he dies it comes”.
3300 Edna [f.] born to Azrial & ? [f.].
3252 Methuselah marries Edna, the daughter of Azrial, his father’s brother.
3200 Baraki’il [Elisha] born to Enoch & Edna.
3150 Baraki’il [Elisha] marries ? [f.].
3130 Lamech born to Methuselah [age 187] & Edna [generation 9] [Genesis 5:25].
c. 3125 Eliakim born to Methuselah & Edna [generation 9].
3122 Betenos [Ashmua] [f.] born to Baraki’il [Elisha] & ? [f.].
c. 3120 Râkê’êl [Rakel] born to Methuselah & Edna. And Methuselah lived after he begat Lamech seven hundred eighty and two years, and begat sons and daughters {Genesis 5:26].
3092 Râkê’êl [Rakel] marries ? [f.].
3074 Adam dies age 930 years [Genesis 5:5].
3017 ENOCH IS TRANSLATED age 365 years. And Enoch walked with God: and he [was] not; for God took him [Genesis 5:21 – 24].
2962 Seth dies age 912 years [Genesis 5:6 – 8].
2950 Lamech [age 180] marries Betenos [Ashmua], the daughter of Baraki’il [Elisha], his father’s brother.
2948 NOAH [Menachem] born to Lamech [age 182] & Betenos [Ashmua]. 1056 years after Creation [generation 10] [Genesis 5:28 – 29]. When Noah was born, his father Lamech named him Menachem, but Methuselah called him Noah.
c. 2900 Adalenses [f.] born to Eliakim & ? [f.].
c. 2900 Sedukatelbab [f.] born to Eliakim & ? [f.].
c. 2900 Neelata – Mek [f.] born to Eliakim & ? [f.].
c. 2900 Emzârâ [Emzarah] born to Râkê’êl [Rakel] & ? [f.].
2864 Enos dies age 905 years [Genesis 5:9 – 11].
2769 Cainan [Kenan] dies age 910 years [Genesis 5:12 – 14].
2714 Mahalaleel [Mahalalel] dies age 895 years [Genesis 5:15 – 17].
c. 2649 Zanakht start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 3].
c. 2630 Zanakht end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 3].
c. 2630 Djoser start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 3].
c. 2611 Djoser end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 3].
c. 2611 Sekhemkhet start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 3].
c. 2605 Sekhemkhet end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 3].
c. 2605 Khaba start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 3].
c. 2599 Khaba end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 3].
c. 2599 Huni start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 3].
2582 Jared dies age 962 years [Genesis 5:18 – 20].
c. 2575 Huni end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 3].
c. 2575 Snefru start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 4].
c. 2551 Snefru end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 4].
c. 2551 Khufu start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 4].
c. 2528 Khufu end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 4].
c. 2528 Djedefre start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 4].
c. 2520 Djedefre end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 4].
c. 2520 Khafre start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 4].
c. 2494 Khafre end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 4].
c. 2494 Nebka II start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 4].
c. 2490 Nebka II end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 4].
c. 2490 Menkaure start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 4].
c. 2472 Menkaure end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 4].
c. 2472 Shepseskaf start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 4].
c. 2467 Shepseskaf end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 4].
c. 2467 Thamphthis start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 4].
c. 2465 Thamphthis end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 4].
c. 2465 Userkaf start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 5].
c. 2458 Userkaf end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 5].
c. 2458 Sahure start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 5].
2450 Noah marries Emzârâ [Emzarah], the daughter of Râkê’êl [Rakel], his father’s brother.
2448 Japheth, the elder, born to Noah [age 500] [Genesis 5:32 & 7:6] & Emzârâ [Emzarah] [generation 11].
2446 Shem born to Noah [age 502] [Genesis 11:10] & Emzârâ [Emzarah] [generation 11].
c. 2446 Sahure end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 5].
c. 2446 Neferirkare start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 5].
c. 2444 Ham, the younger [youngest], born to Noah [age about 504] & Emzârâ [Emzarah] [generation 11] [Genesis 9:24].
c. 2438 Neferirkare end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 5].
c. 2438 Shepseskare start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 5].
c. 2431 Shepseskare end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 5].
c. 2431 Neferefre start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 5].
c. 2420 Neferefre end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 5].
c. 2420 Niuserre start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 5].
c. 2389 Niuserre end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 5].
c. 2389 Menkauhor start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 5].
c. 2381 Menkauhor end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 5].
c. 2381 Isesi start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 5].
2353 Lamech dies age 777 years [Genesis 5:28 – 31].
c. 2353 Isesi end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 5].
c. 2353 Unis start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 5].
c. 2349 Japheth marries Adalenses, Elikim’s daughter. Adalenses is a first cousin once removed from Japheth. Their children after the great flood include: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras [Chapter 10:2].
c. 2349 Shem marries Sedukatelbab, Elikim’s daughter. Sedukatelbab is a first cousin once removed from Shem. Their children after the great flood include: Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad [spouse Rasuja and Milka], Lud and Aram [Genesis 10:22].
c. 2349 Ham marries Neelata – Mek, Elikim’s daughter. Neelata – Mek is a first cousin once removed from Ham. Their children after the great flood include: Cush, Mizraim, Phut and Canaan [Genesis 10:6].
2348 Methuselah dies age 969 years [Genesis 5:25 – 27]. He died in year of but just before the Flood. He was the oldest person.
2348 THE GREAT FLOOD – Noah age 600 years at time of the Flood [Genesis 7:6 & 11].
2347 The waters were dried up from off the earth [Genesis 8:13].
2346 Arphaxad [Arpachshad] born to Shem [age 100] – 2 years after Flood [Genesis 11:10] [generation 12].
c. 2323 Unis end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 5].
c. 2323 Teti start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 6].
2311 Salah [Shelah] born to Arphaxad [Arpachshad] [age 35] & Milka [f.] [Genesis 11:12]. [Chronology given in Genesis 11:10 – 32.] [generation 13].
c. 2291 Teti end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 6].
c. 2291 Userkare start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 6].
c. 2289 Userkare end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 6].
c. 2289 Pepi I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 6].
2281 Eber born to Salah [Shelah] [age 30] [generation 14] [Genesis 11:14].
c. 2255 Pepi I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 6].
c. 2255 Merenre I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 6].
2247 Peleg [Division of the earth] born to Eber [age 34] [generation 15] [Genesis 11:16].
c. 2246 Merenre I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 6].
c. 2246 Pepi II start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 6].
2217 Reu [Ragau] born to Peleg [age 30] [generation 16] [Genesis 11:18].
2185 Serug born to Reu [Ragau] [age 32] [generation 17] [Genesis 11:20].
2155 Nahor born to Serug [age 30] [generation 18] [Genesis 11:22].
c. 2152 Pepi II end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 6].
c. 2152 Merenre II start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 6].
c. 2152 Merenre II end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 6].
c. 2152 Netjerkare Siptah start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 6].
c. 2150 Netjerkare Siptah end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 6].
2126 Terah [Térach] born to Nahor [age 29] [generation 19] [Genesis 11:24].
c. 2124 Mentuhotep I start of reign [[1st half] Egyptian Dynasty 11].
c. 2120 Mentuhotep I end of reign [[1st half] Egyptian Dynasty 11].
c. 2120 Intef I I start of reign [[1st half] Egyptian Dynasty 11].
c. 2108 Intef I I end of reign [[1st half] Egyptian Dynasty 11].
c. 2108 Intef II I start of reign [[1st half] Egyptian Dynasty 11].
2096 Nimrod born to Cush & ? [f.] on the 25th December. Nimrod was born to Cush when he was old; earlier children include Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah and Sabtechah [Genesis 10:7 – 8].
c. 2059 Intef II I end of reign [[1st half] Egyptian Dynasty 11].
c. 2059 Intef III I start of reign [[1st half] Egyptian Dynasty 11].
2056 Nahor born to Terah & ?[f.]. And Terah lived seventy years, and begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran [Genesis 11.26] [Genesis 11:26]. NB: The first of his children at 70 years.
c. 2051 Intef III I end of reign [[1st half] Egyptian Dynasty 11].
c. 2051 Mentuhotep II I start of reign [[1st half] Egyptian Dynasty 11].
c. 2050 God confounds the languages of mankind and stops the construction of the TOWER OF BABEL [Genesis 11:1 – 9].
c. 2032 Haran [Aran] born to Terah & ? [f.].
c. 2030 Mentuhotep II I end of reign [[1st half] Egyptian Dynasty 11].
c. 2030 Mentuhotep II [cont] start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 11 [2nd half]].
2008 Peleg dies age 239 years [Genesis 11:18 – 19]. This is the first death mentioned in the Bible after the flood.
2007 Nahor, the son of Serug, dies age 148 years.
c. 2000 Mentuhotep II [cont] end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 11 [2nd half]].
c. 2000 Mentuhotep III start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 11 [2nd half]].
1998 Noah dies age 950 years [350 years after the flood] [Genesis 9:28 – 29].
1996 ABRAM [ABRAHAM] [not the 1st child] born to Terah [Térach] [130] & Amathlaah [generation 20] [Genesis 11:27].
c. 1993 Haran [Aran] [age 39] marries [f.] – called “Ado” or “Edith” in some Jewish traditions.
c. 1988 Mentuhotep III end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 11 [2nd half]].
c. 1988 Mentuhotep IV start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 11 [2nd half]].
1986 Sarai [Sarah] born born to Terah [Térach] & ? [f]. [Sarai [Sarah] was the half – sister of Abraham [Genesis 20:12].
c. 1985 Qakare Intef start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 11 [2nd half]].
c. 1985 Qakare Intef end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 11 [2nd half]].
c. 1985 Sekhentibre start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 11 [2nd half]].
c. 1985 Sekhentibre end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 11 [2nd half]].
c. 1985 Menekhkare start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 11 [2nd half]].
c. 1985 Menekhkare end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 11 [2nd half]].
c. 1981 Mentuhotep IV end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 11 [2nd half]].
c. 1981 Amenemhat I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 12].
1978 Reu [Ragau] dies age 239 years [Genesis 11:20 – 21].
c. 1961 Senwosret I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 12].
1955 Serug dies age 230 years [Genesis 11:22 – 23].
c. 1954 LOT born to Haran [Aran] & [f.] – called “Ado” or “Edith” in some Jewish traditions. Haran [Aran] was the son of Terah [Térach]. Lot was the nephew of Abram [Abraham].
c. 1952 Amenemhat I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 12].
c. 1950 Haran [Aran] dies age 82 years. Haran was killed by fire. And Haran died before his father Terah in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees [Genesis 11:28].
1946 Abram [Abraham] [age 50] marries Sarai [Sarah] [age 40].
c. 1940 Terah [Térach] moves with his family from Ur of the Chaldees to Haran in Caanan [about 600 miles]. And Terah took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran his son’s son, and Sarai his daughter in law, his son Abram’s wife; and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan; and they came unto Haran, and dwelt there [Genesis 11:31].
1921 Terah [Térach] dies age 205 years [Genesis 11:32]. And the days of Terah were two hundred and five years: and Terah died in Haran.
1921 God tells Abram to leave Haran [Genesis 12:1 – 9].
1921 Abram [Abraham] aged 75 years leaves Haran with Sarai [Sarah] and Lot for Canaan [Genesis 12:4] – a distance of about 400 miles. His brother Nahor with his household clung to their home and their idols. Abram first tarried at Shechem before moving about 20 miles to Babel.
1920 The famine in Canaan; Abram goes down into Egypt to sojourn there [Genesis 12:10] – a journey of about 225 miles.
c. 1919 Amenemhat II start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 12].
c. 1917 Senwosret I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 12].
1915 After returning to Bethel, Abram and Lot part ways [Genesis 13:1 – 13].
1915 Abram promised many descendants [Genesis 13:14 – 16]. Abram moves to Mamre [in Hebron] [Genesis 13:18] – 35 miles from Bethel.
1914 Battle of Siddim / War of Nine Kings. Abram rescues Lot at Hobah [near Damascus] – about 160 miles from Hebron. [Genesis 14].
1911 God’s covenant with Abram [Genesis 15:18 – 21].
1911 Hagar, Sarai [Sarah] Egyptian maid, conceives Ishmael by Abraham [Genesis 16:3 – 4].
1910 Abram [Abraham] 86 years when Ishmael born [Genesis 16:15 – 16] [generation 21].
1908 Arphaxad [Arpachshad] dies age 438 years [Genesis 11:12 – 13].
c. 1908 Ham dies age 536 years?
1908 Nahor, son of Terah, dies age 148 tears [Genesis 11:24 – 25].
1897 God tells Abraham, age 99 years, to walk before me, and be thou perfect. And I will make my covenant between me and thee, and will multiply thee exceedingly. [Genesis 17:1 – 2].
1897 God changes Abram’s name to Abraham [Genesis 17:5] and Sarai’s name to Sarah [Genesis 17:15].
1897 Abram [Abraham] 99 years when he and his household were circumcised; Ishmael being 13 years old [Genesis 17:23 – 27].
1897 God promises the birth of Isaac [Genesis 17:19 – 21].
1897 SODOM AND GOMORRAH are destroyed [Genesis 19]. Lot’s wife becomes a pillar of salt after she looks back at Sodom. [Genesis 19:26]. She is called “Ado” or “Edith” in some Jewish traditions, but is not named in the Bible.
1896 Abraham, Sarah and Abimelech [Genesis 20].
1896 ISAAC born to Abraham [age 100] & Sarah [90] [Genesis 17:17 & 21:3 – 5] [generation 21].
1894 Hagar and Ishmael sent away [Genesis 21:8].
c. 1887 Senwosret II start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 12].
c. 1885 Amenemhat II end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 12].
1881 Nimrod dies age 215 years.
1878 Salah [Shelah] dies age 433 years [Genesis 11:14 – 15].
c. 1878 Ishmael grows up, becomes an archer and marries an Egyptian [Genesis 21:20 – 21].
1878 Abimelech’s covenant with Abraham at Beersheba [Genesis 21:22 – 32].
c. 1878 Senwosret II end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 12].
c. 1878 Senwosret III start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 12].
1876 Abraham [age 120] called by God to offer Isaac [age 20] [Genesis 22] – start of the 430 YEAR PROPHECY.
1859 Sarah dies age 127 years [Genesis 23:1,2] – only woman in Old Testament whose death age is given. Sarah’s burial [Genesis 23].
c. 1859 Amenemhat III start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 12].
1856 Isaac marries Rebekah [Genesis 24:61 – 67]. Isaac 40 years when he marries Rebekah [Genesis 25:20].
1846 Shem dies age 600 years [Genesis 11:10 – 11].
c. 1840 Senwosret III end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 12].
1837 Japheth dies age 611 years.
1836 ESAU and JACOB [twins] born to Isaac [age 60] & Rebekah [Genesis 25:26] [generation 22].
c. 1825 Lot, now old and living in a cave with his 2 daughters, is made drunk for reproduction. The older daughter conceives Moab [from the father], father of the Moabites and the the younger conceives Ben – Ammi [Son of my people], father of the Ammonites. [Genesis 19:30 – 38].
1821 Abraham dies age 175 years [Genesis 25:7 – 8].
1817 Eber dies age 464 years [Genesis 11:16 – 17].
c. 1814 Lot dies age 140.
c. 1814 Amenemhat IV start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 12].
c. 1813 Amenemhat III end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 12].
1808 Esau sells his birthright [Genesis 25:29 – 34].
1807 Isaac and Abimelech, king of the Philistines [Genesis 26].
c. 1805 Amenemhat IV end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 12].
c. 1805 Nefrusobek start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 12].
c. 1802 Nefrusobek end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 12].
1796 Esau marries Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Bashemath the daughter of Elon the Hittite [Genesis 26:34].
1792 Hammurabi – the sixth king of the First Babylonian Dynasty, start of reign.
c. 1780 Rachel born to Laban & Adina? [f]. Laban is uncle to Jacob.
1773 Ishmael dies age 137 years [Genesis 25:17].
1759 Jacob gets Isaac’s blessing [Genesis 27].
1759 Jacob [age 77] leaves Canaan, goes to Haran and works for Laban [Genesis 28].
1759 Jacob’s vision of a ladder [Genesis 28:10].
1759 Jacob serves Laban [Genesis 29].
1752 Jacob [age 84] marries Leah [Genesis 29:21 – 27].
c. 1752 Reuben born to Jacob & Leah. Reuben was the oldest son of Jacob and Leah [Genesis 29:32]. For his crime with Bilhah he would loose the right of the firstborn, which was bestowed on Judah [Genesis 35:22]. Reuben was responsible for saving the life of Joseph. Later he moved to Egypt with his father. The tribe of Reuben numbered 46,500 men at Mount Sinai. Because the tribe of Reuben had many herds it chose a portion beyond the Jordan, where the pasture was good, it was the area located between Moab and Gilead and near the Dead Sea. In 740 B.C. the tribe, which had fallen into idolatry, is carried away by Tiglath – Pileser III [Pur].
1752-1745 Jacob and his sons [Genesis 30:1 – 21]. Jacob’s sons form the 12 TRIBES OF JUDAH / ISRAEL.
1750 Hammurabi – the 6th king of the First Babylonian Dynasty, end of reign.
c. 1750 Simeon born to Jacob & Leah
1749 Levi born to Jacob & Leah.
c. 1746 Judah born Jacob & Leah.
1745 Jacob [age 91] marries Rachel [Genesis 29:28].
c. 1745 Dan born Jacob & Bilhah [Rachel’s handmaid].
1745 JOSEPH born to Jacob [age 91] & Rachel [Genesis 30:22 – 24].
c. 1744 Naphtali born Jacob & Bilhah [Rachel’s handmaid].
c. 1744 Sobekhotep III start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 13].
c. 1743 Gad born to Jacob & Zilpah [Leah’s handmaid].
c. 1742 Asher born Jacob & Zilpah [Leah’s handmaid].
c. 1742 Issachar born to Jacob & Leah.
c. 1741 Zebulun born to Jacob & Leah.
c. 1740 Dinah born to Jacob & Leah.
c. 1740 Sobekhotep III end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 13].
c. 1740 Neferhotep I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 13].
1739 Jacob [age 97] leaves Haran and returns to Canaan after 40 years [Genesis 31].
1739 Jacob buries Rachel by the side of the road where she died. [Genesis 35:19 – 20].
1739 Rachel dies [Genesis 35:18]. Rachel dies in child birth – age about 41 years.
c. 1737 Jacob wrestles with God [Genesis 32].
c. 1735 Jacob meets Esau [Genesis 33].
c. 1732 Jacob settles in Shechem [Genesis 33:18].
c. 1731 Shechem defiles Dinah [Genesis 34].
c. 1731 Jacob returns to Bethel [Genesis 35].
c. 1730 Jacob named Israel [Genesis 35:9 – 10].
1730 Hyksos invasion of Egypt.
c. 1729 Benjamin born Jacob & Rachel who dies in child birth on road to Ephrath [Bethlehem]. Jacob buries Rachel by the side of the road where she died. [Genesis 35:18 – 20].
c. 1729 Neferhotep I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 13].
1728 Joseph’s dreams and betrayal [Genesis 37].
1728 Joseph [age 17] sold by his brothers [Genesis 37:2] into slavery [Genesis 37:25].
1728 Tamar deceives Judah [Genesis 38].
1728 Joseph prospers under Potiphar [Genesis 39].
1728 Hammurabi of Sumer born.
c. 1725 Start of Egyptian Dynasty 14.
c. 1720 Potiphar’s wife accuses Joseph [Genesis 39:7].
c. 1720 Joseph imprisoned [Genesis 39:20].
c. 1718 The cupbearer and the baker’s dreams [Genesis 40].
c. 1716 Joseph interprets Pharaoh’s dreams [Genesis 41].
1716 Isaac dies age 180 years [Genesis 35:28 – 29].
1716 Descendants of Esau [Genesis 36].
1715 Pharaoh gives Aseneth, the daughter of Potipherah priest of On to Joseph as a wife [Genesis 41:45].
1715 Joseph [age 30] promoted to 2nd in authority to pharaoh [Genesis 41:46].
1715 7 years of plenty begin [Genesis 41:47].
c. 1713 Manasseh born to Joseph & Asenath.
c. 1712 Ephraim born to Joseph & Asenath.
1708 7 years of plenty end and 7 years of famine start [Genesis 41:53 – 54].
1708 Joseph’s brothers sent to Egypt [Genesis 42].
1708 Simeon detained by Joseph [Genesis 42:24].
1707 Joseph’s brothers return with Benjamin [Genesis 43].
1707 Benjamin and the silver cup [Genesis 44].
1706 Joseph reveals his identity [Genesis 45:1 – 8].
1706 Joseph sends for Jacob [Genesis 45:9].
1706 Jacob [age 130] and family migrates to Goshen, Egypt to live [Genesis 46.1 – 7 & 47:9; cf. Exodus 12:40 – 41].
1701 7 years of famine end.
c. 1700 Levi marries Milkah. And these [are] the names of the sons of Levi according to their generations; Gershon, and Kohath, and Merari: and the years of the life of Levi [were] an hundred thirty and seven years [Exodus 6:16]. Jochebed [f.], later to be the mother of Miriam [f.], Aaron & Moses, was born after Gershon.
1689 Jacob’s illness; Ephraim is blessed more than Manasseh by Jacob. [Genesis 48].
1689 Jacob’s blessing and death [Genesis 49].
1689 After 17 years in Egypt, Jacob dies age 147 years [Genesis 47:28 & 49:33].
1689 The burial of Jacob [Genesis 50].
c. 1667 Jochebed [f.] born to Levi & Milkah.
c. 1660 Kohath born to Levi & Milkah.
c. 1650 End of Egyptian Dynasty 14.
c. 1650 Start of Egyptian Dynasty 15.
c. 1649 Start of Egyptian Dynasty 16.
1635 Joseph dies age 110 years [Genesis 50:22 – 26].
1612 Levi dies age 137 years [Exodus 6:16].
c. 1602 Amran born to Kohath & ? [f.].
1635-1549 Israelites multiply in Egypt [Exodus 1:7].
c.1600 Start of the Hittites. An ancient Anatolian people who established an empire centred on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia.
1595 The Hittite king Marsilis I [r.?1556 -?1526 B.C.] marches into the city of Babylon and sacks the city, however due to fear of revolts at home he does not remain there long, and quickly returns to the capital of Hattusa. On his journy back to Hattusa he is assassinated by his brother-in-law Hantili I who then takes the throne.
c. 1585 Start of Egyptian Dynasty 17.
c. 1582 End of Egyptian Dynasty 16.
c. 1560 Tao I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 17].
c. 1560 Tao I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 17].
c. 1560 Tao II start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 17].
c. 1560 Tao II end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 17].
1555 Kamose start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 17]. A Hyksos king who was Pharaoh over Egypt.
c. 1550 End of Egyptian Dynasty 15.
c. 1550 End of Egyptian Dynasty 17.
1550 Kamose end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 17].
1549 Ahmose I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18]. A Hyksos king who was Pharaoh over Egypt.
1549 Israelites oppressed by new king [Exodus 1:8 – 22].
1549 Hebrew slavery begins [Exodus 1:11].
1549 Hebrew midwives ordered to destroy all Hebrew male children [Exodus 1:15 – 20].
1549 Pharaoh’s order to kill firstborn [Exodus 1:21 – 22].
c. 1535 Amram marries Jochebed [f] – both Levites. And Amram took him Jochebed his father’s sister to wife; and she bare him Aaron and Moses: and the years of the life of Amram [were] an hundred and thirty and seven years [Exodus 6:20].
1532 MIRIAM [Moses sister] born born to Amram & Jochebed [f] – both Levites.
c.1532 Pharoah Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV start of reign.
1529 AARON [Moses brother] born to Amram & Jochebed [f] – both Levites.
1528 All newborn Hebrew males are to be cast into the Nile.
1528 Thutmose I becomes pharaoh.
1526 MOSES born to Amram & Jochebed [f] – both Levites [Exodus 2:1 – 4].
1526-1514 The adoption of Moses [Exodus 2:5 – 10].
1524 Ahmose I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
1524 Amenhotep I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
1510 Thutmose II becomes pharaoh.
c.1508 Pharoah Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV end of reign.
1504 Hatshepsut becomes pharaoh.
1504 Amenhotep I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
c. 1504 Thutmose I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
c. 1492 Thutmose I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
c. 1492 Thutmose II start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
1487 JOSHUA born to Nun & ? [f].
1486 Moses kills an Egyptian and because of this impulsive act he flees from Egypt and from Pharaoh [Exodus 2:11 – 13].
1486 Moses spends the next 40 years [to 1446 B.C.] working as a shepherd for Jethro in Midian [Exodus 3:1 & Acts 7:30].
1484 Caleb born.
1479 Thutmose II end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
1479 Thutmose III start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
c. 1479 Hatshepsut [as regent] start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
c. 1473 Hatshepsut [as regent] end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
c. 1473 Hatshepsut start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
c. 1458 Hatshepsut end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
c.1457 Dudimose start of reign.
1446 Israelites groan in slavery [Exodus 2:23].
1446 God from Mt Horeb [also called Mt Sinai] tells Moses to return to Egypt and that He would free the Israelites from slavery [Exodus 3 – 6].
1446 Moses [age 80] & Aaron [age 83] speak to Pharaoh [Exodus 7:7]. THE 10 PLAGUES on Egypt [Exodus 7 – 12].
1446 THE EXODUS [The Wilderness] starts – Passover of the Exodus [Exodus 13 – 18]. End of the 430 YEAR PROPHECY [Exodus 12:40 – 41].
1446 The Israelites at Mt. Sinai [Exodus 19].
1446 Moses receives THE TEN COMMANDMENTS [Exodus 20].
1446 Moses receives the Law [Exodus 21 – 24].
1446 Preparations for the Tabernacle [Exodus 25 – 31].
1446 The golden calf and Moses’ anger [Exodus 32].
1446 The journey resumes [Exodus 33 – 39].
1445 THE TABERNACLE is erected and filled [Exodus 40].
1445 Laws for sacrifices and offerings [Leviticus 1 – 7].
1445 Aaron and his sons consecrated [Leviticus 8 – 9].
1445 The sin of Nadab and Abihu [Leviticus 10]. But Nadab and Abihu died before their father, and had no children: therefore Eleazar and Ithamar executed the priest’s office. [1 Chronicles 24:2].
1445 Laws of purity [Leviticus 11 – 19].
1445 Punishments and regulations [Leviticus 20 – 22].
1445 Feasts and jubilee [Leviticus 23].
1445 Census, tribes and duties [Numbers 1 – 6].
1445 Tabernacle dedication [Numbers 7 – 10].
1445 The people complain [Numbers 11 – 12].
1444 God tells Moses & Aaron to number those men of 20 years or more that are able to go forth to war in Israel [Numbers 1:1 – 4].
1444 The 12 spies [Numbers 13]. 2 years into the Exodus, spies sent out. Caleb was 40 years old when sent out to explore the land, 38 more years passed [Joshua 14:7].
1444 People murmur at the spies’ report [Numbers 14 – 15].
c. 1444 Dudimose end of reign.
1440 Psalm of Moses [Psalm 90]. A Prayer of Moses, the man of God.
1426 Korah’s rebellion [Numbers 16].
1426 Aaron’s staff buds [Numbers 17].
1426 Priests, red heifer and cleansing [Numbers 18 – 19].
1425 Thutmose III end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
1425 Amenhotep II start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
1408 Miriam dies at Kadesh age 124 years [Numbers 20:1].
1408 Water from the rock at Meribah [Numbers 20:2 – 11].
1407 The bronze snake [Numbers 21].
1407 Balaam and the angel [Numbers 22 – 25].
1407 The 2nd census [Numbers 26].
1407 The daughters of Zelophehad [Numbers 27].
1407 Joshua chosen to succeed Moses [Numbers 27:18].
1407 Special sacrifices and holy days [Numbers 28 – 29].
1407 Vows of women [Numbers 30].
1407 Conquest of Midian [Numbers 31].
1407 Division of Transjordan [Numbers 32].
1407 Summary of Israel’s journey [Numbers 33].
1407 Apportionment of Canaan [Numbers 34].
1407 Borders and cities of refuge [Numbers 35].
1407 Zelophehad’s daughters marry [Numbers 36].
1407 Moses’ summary of Israel’s history [Deuteronomy 1 – 4].
1407 Recapitulation of the Law [Deuteronomy 4:44 – 31].
1407 The song of Moses [Deuteronomy 32].
1407 Moses blesses the 12 Tribes [Deuteronomy 33].
1407 Moses leaves Dibon for Jahaz.
1407 king Sihon of Heshbon attacks Israel at Jahaz and is defeated.
1407 Reuben given Aeror to Mt. Peor [Numbers 32].
1407 Moses spies and captures Jazer [Numbers 21:32].
1407 Gad given Shittim to Chinnereth.
1407 Moab and Midian intermarry and hire Balaam to curse at Mt. Peor.
1407 Midianites, Balak and Balaam killed.
1407 Moses camps at Shittim. Shittim was the last camping place of the Israelite tribes before they crossed the river Jordan [Numbers 25:1]. At Shittim Moses ordered a census of the people [Numbers 25:1 – 4].
1406 Aaron dies age 123 years with 30 days of mourning. God tells Moses to put Aaron’s garments upon Eleazar his son. [Numbers 20:25 – 29 & 33:38 – 39].
1406 Towards the end of the mourning the Israelites leave Mt. Hor and defeat the Transjordan nations.
1406 Moses tells Israel the LORD hath said unto me, Thou shalt not go over this Jordan [Deuteronomy 31:2]. Moses dies age 120 years. And Moses was an hundred and twenty years old when he died: his eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated [Deuteronomy 34:7]. Satan had been trying to find something wherewith to accuse Moses before the angels. He exulted at his success in leading him to displease God, and he told the angels that he could overcome the Saviour of the world when He should come to redeem man. For his transgression, Moses came under the power of Satan– the dominion of death. Had he remained steadfast, the Lord would have brought him to the Promised Land, and would then have translated him to heaven without his seeing death. [Early Writings 164.1]. Moses passed through death, but Michael came down and gave him life before his body had seen corruption. Satan tried to hold the body, claiming it as his; but Michael resurrected Moses and took him to heaven. Satan railed bitterly against God, denouncing Him as unjust in permitting his prey to be taken from him; but Christ did not rebuke His adversary, though it was through his temptation that the servant of God had fallen. He meekly referred him to His Father, saying, “The Lord rebuke thee.” [Early Writings 164.2].
1406 The Israelites return to Mt. Hor and mourn 30 days for Moses [Deuteronomy 34:8].
1406 God commissions Joshua. Joshua [age 81] succeeds Moses and is told to cross the River Jordan and enter into the Promised Land [Joshua 1:1 – 2].
1406 Joshua, at Shittim, sends 2 men to spy secretly, saying, Go view the land, even Jericho. And they went, and came into an harlot’s house, named Rahab, and lodged there [Joshua 2:1].
1406 Rahab hides spies on her roof, then asks for the safety of her and her family when God destroys Jericho. She then lets down by a cord through the window and they flee to the mountains for 3 days [Joshua 2:2 – 24].
1406 Joshua and all the children of Israel move from Shittim to Jordan and lodge there for 3 days prior to crossing the river [Joshua 3:1 – 2].
1406 The sanctification for the crossing on the 4th day and the focus upon the Ark of the Covenant of the LORD [Joshua 3:3 – 13].
1406 THE EXODUS ends after 40 years in THE WILDERNESS. Note: 4004-1406=2598 years. For Sabbath Year calculations: 2598 less 1 =2597 divided by 7 gives 371 completed Sabbath Years to the Wilderness exit. In Gematria, 371 = Place of Suffering.
1406 The Israelite people CROSS THE RIVER JORDAN and enter [Canaan] THE PROMISED LAND [Joshua 3:14 – 17]. Exactly 40 years earlier they left Goshen. Note: 4004-1406=2598 years. For Jubilee calculations: 2598 less 1 =2597 divided by 49 gives 53 completed Jubilees to the Promised Land. In Gematria, 53 = Faithful Witness.
1406 God tells Joshua to select 12 men, 1 from each tribe, and take out of the river Jordan, from the place where the priests’ feet stood firm, 12 stones, and carry them over with you, and leave them in the lodging place, where ye shall lodge this night [Joshua 4:1 – 8]. This place was Gilgal [Joshua 5:9 – 10].
1406 Likewise, 12 stones are taken from the new land and put into the river Jordan where the priests’ feet stood firm [Joshua 4:9 – 10].
1406 When all the people were clean passed over, that the Ark of the LORD passed over, and the priests, in the presence of the people. And the children of Reuben, and the children of Gad, and half the tribe of Manasseh, passed over armed before the children of Israel. About forty thousand prepared for war passed over before the LORD unto battle, to the plains of Jericho [Joshua 4:11 – 24].
1406 God tells Joshua to circumcise all males [Joshua 5:2 – 8].
1406 The children of Israel encamp in Gilgal and keep the passover [Joshua 5:10].
1406 The manna ceases on the morrow after they had eaten of the old corn of the land; the children of Israel eat of the fruit of the land of Canaan that year [Joshua 5:12]. And the children of Israel did eat manna forty years, until they came to a land inhabited; they did eat manna, until they came unto the borders of the land of Canaan [Exodus 16:35].
1406 Joshua, by Jericho, sees a man with his sword drawn in his hand; Joshua is told that he is the captain of the host of the LORD. After worship Joshua asks what he should do and is told to take off his shoes for he stands on holy ground [Joshua 5:13 – 15]. If the eyes of Joshua had been opened as were the eyes of the servant of Elisha at Dothan, and he could have endured the sight, he would have seen the angels of the Lord encamped about the children of Israel; for the trained army of heaven had come to fight for the people of God, and the Captain of the Lord’s host was there to command. When Jericho fell, no human hand touched the walls of the city, for the angels of the Lord overthrew the fortifications, and entered the fortress of the enemy. It was not Israel, but the Captain of the Lord’s host that took Jericho. But Israel had their part to act to show their faith in the Captain of their salvation [2 B.C. 994.5].
1406 God tells Joshua what they need to do to destroy Jericho [Joshua 6:1 – 21].
1406 Joshua saves Rahab the harlot alive, and her father’s household, and all that she had [Joshua 6:22 – 23, 25].
1406 God was angry at Israel for Achan, the son of Carmi, the son of Zabdi, the son of Zerah, of the tribe of Judah, took of the accursed thing; the silver, and the gold, and the vessels of brass and of iron, were to be put into the treasury of the house of the LORD [Joshua 6:24 & 7:1].
1406 Joshua sends men from Jericho to Ai to view the land; they recommend that about two or three thousand men go up and smite Ai [Joshua 7:2 – 4].
1406 The men of Ai smite about thirty and six men and chase them [from] before the gate [even] unto Shebarim [Joshua 7:5].
1406 Joshua rents his clothes and asks why God has brought them across the river Jordan only to die at the hands of the Amorites and Canaanites; then what will happen to God’s name? [Joshua 7:6 – 9].
1406 God tells Joshua that Israel has sinned and that they must sanctify themselves. Achan’s stealing is established, he confesses and the treasure is reclaimed from his tent [Joshua 5:10 – 23].
1406 Joshua, and all Israel with him, take Achan the son of Zerah, and the silver, and the garment, and the wedge of gold, and his sons, and his daughters, and his oxen, and his asses, and his sheep, and his tent, and all that he had to the valley of Achor. All Israel stone him with stones, and burn them with fire, after they had stoned them with stones [Joshua 7:24 – 26].
1406 God tells Joshua the strategy for destroying Ai – 30,000 mighty men of valour to lie in wait behind the city, in 2 groups on the north and west sides of the city. Joshua and the Israelites with him approach the city but then flee when all the men of Ai leaves the city to fight them. This ambush strategy then permits the unprotected city to be taken and burnt with 12,000 men of Ai being subsequently destroyed [Joshua 8:1 – 29].
1406 As commanded by Moses, Joshua builds an altar to God in Mt. Ebal; he writes upon the stones a copy of the law of Moses which is then read out to everyone [Joshua 8:30 – 35].
1406 king of Og of Bashan attacks and is defeated [Joshua 13:12].
1406 Manasseh given land from Bashan to Mt. Hermon [Joshua 13:29 – 32].
1406 The sabbatical years and the Jubilees start after crossing the river Jordan [Numbers 33:38, 20:28; Joshua 4:19 & 5:10].
1405 All the kings join together to fight Joshua and the Israelites [Joshua 9:1 – 2].
1405 The Hivites the inhabitants of Gibeon come and deceive Joshua and the leaders of Israel by saying that they have travelled from a far country, have heard of what they have done in the name of God and wish to serve them. Joshua does not seek God’s guidance, accepts them but then finds out that they are heathen neighbours so makes them hewers of wood and drawers of water for the congregation, and for the altar of the LORD [Joshua 9:3 – 27].
1405 Adonizedek king of Jerusalem gets Hoham king of Hebron, Piram king of Jarmuth, Japhia king of Lachish, and Debir king of Eglon to unite and fight against Israel. The Gibeonites tell Joshua that this will happen, Joshua seeks God’s help who confirms that these 5 Amorite nations will be destroyed; Joshua moves from Gilgal to Gibeon and they are in battle but more die by God casting down great stones [hailstones] from heaven [Joshua 10:1 – 11].
1405 Joshua requests that the sun and moon stand still while God fights for Israel [Joshua 10:12 – 14].
1405 The 5 kings flee and hide in a cave at Makkedah; they are discovered and killed by Joshua [Joshua 10:12 – 28].
1405 Joshua fights against Libnah, Lachish, Horam king of Gezer, Eglon, Hebron, Debir and all the country of the hills, and of the south, and of the vale, and of the springs, and all their kings: he left none remaining, but utterly destroyed all that breathed, as the LORD God of Israel commanded. All these kings and their land did Joshua take at one time, because the LORD God of Israel fought for Israel [Joshua 10:29 – 43].
1405 God fights for Joshua against 31 kings of the Northern Palestine area. Joshua made war a long time with all those kings who are all defeated [Joshua 11, 12]. One of them was king Jabin of Canaan who reigned in Hazor and had led a coalition against Joshua, but he was defeated [Joshua 11:1 – 14]. 165 years later, a descendant of this king and also named Jabin, would again oppress the Israelites.
1401 Amenhotep II end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
1401 Thutmose IV start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
1401-1399 Joshua conquers Canaan. Land allotted among the tribes [Joshua 13 – 22].
1401-1399 God tells Joshua Thou art old [and] stricken in years, and there remaineth yet very much land to be possessed. God then cites this land and says that it is to be given for an inheritance to the nine tribes, and the half tribe of Manasseh [Joshua 13]. [Moses had already given the Reubenites, the Gadites and the half tribe of Manasseh their inheritance before the crossing of the river Jordan.]
1399 Caleb [age 85] asks Joshua for Mt. Hebron as an inheritance [Joshua 14:6 – 15] which God had promised [Numbers 14:24].
1399 Tabernacle set up at Shiloh from 1399 B.C. – 1094 B.C. [305 years].
c. 1390 Thutmose IV end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
c. 1390 Amenhotep III start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
1377 Joshua’s farewell address [Joshua 23 – 24].
1377 Joshua dies age 110 years [Joshua 24:29 & Judges 2:8].
1375 Israelites capture Jerusalem and Hebron [Kirjatharba] [Judges 1]. And it came to pass, when Israel was strong, that they put the Canaanites to tribute, and did not utterly drive them out [Judges 1:28].
1375 Israel continues not to follow God’s way as told to Joshua but serves other gods [Baal and Ashtaroth] and dwells with the heatheners that are not driven out of the land [Judges 2].
1375 Israel’s idolatry and servitude [Judges 3:1 – 7].
1375 Micah’s idolatry [Judges 17]. Not the prophet but a man who lived in the region of the Tribe of Ephraim, possibly at Bethel. He had stolen 1100 silver shekels from his mother, but when his mother cursed about it he returned them. Micah and his mother agreed to turn their money into a god, and set up idol worship in their family. What is related here, and the rest of the chapters Joshua, was done soon after the death of Joshua [Judges 20:28].
1375 Danites settle in Laish and take Micah’s Idols [Judges 18].
1375 A Levite’s concubine degraded [Judges 19].
1375 Israelites defeat the Benjamites [Judges 20].
1375 Wives for the Benjamites [Judges 21].
1377-1350 Israel’s period of probation by God to see if they will live as He directed them to live when in the Promised Land. Starting with the children of Benjamin, Israel fails to drive out the conquered inhabitants and, as a result, become subject to oppression and servitude.
1353 Amenhotep III end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
1353 Akhenaten, known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18]. Inaugurates monotheistic reforms.
1350 300 YEAR PERIOD OF THE JUDGES STARTS. [The 1st Judge arose after Joshua died followed by a short probational time to establish whether Israel would follow God’s declared lifestyle].
1350 Chushanrishathaim [Cushan – rishathaim] king of Mesopotamia 8 year oppression starts [Judges 3:8]. Chushan-rishathaim was king of Aram-Naharaim, or Northwest Mesopotamia, and the first oppressor of the Israelites after their settlement in Canaan.
1349 Amenhotep IV [end of reign] [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
1349 Akhenaten [start of reign] [Egyptian Dynasty 18] [Akhenaten, known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV].
1342 Chushanrishathaim [Cushan – rishathaim] king of Mesopotamia 8 year oppression ends.
1342 Othniel [from the Tribe of Judah] becomes 1st judge for 40 years [Judges 3:8 – 11]. Othniel the son of Kenaz, Caleb’s younger brother. Othniel 1350 – 1302=8+40=48 years. Othniel liberates and 40 years of peace starts [Judges 3:11].
1340 Micah’s idolatry transported by Dan to Laish [Judges 18 – 18].
1340 Jonathan, a Levite from Bethlehem and grandson of Moses, rubber stamps idolatry in Dan.
1336 Akhenaten end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
1336 Neferneferuaton start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
c. 1336 Neferneferuaton end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
c. 1336 Smenkhkare start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
c. 1336 Smenkhkare end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
c. 1336 Tutankhamun start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
c. 1333 Naomi born.
c. 1327 Tutankhamun end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
c. 1327 Aya start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
c. 1323 Aya end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
c. 1323 Haremhab start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
c. 1322 The Hittite Empire is at its greatest extent under Suppiluliuma I [c. 1350-1322 B.C.] and Mursili II [c. 1321-1295 B.C.].
1318 Rameses I founds the 19th dynasty in Egypt.
c. 1303 Ruth born.
1302 40 years of peace in Israel ends when Othniel dies [Judges 3:11]. Othniel was the son of Kenaz, Caleb’s younger brother. Kenaz had two children named Seraiah and Othniel. Othniel, in taking Debir [Kirjathsepher], married Acsah, Caleb’s daughter. Their marriage resulted in two sons named Hathath and Meonothai [Joshua 15:17 – 18, Judges 1:13 & 3:9].
1302 18 year famine in Bethlehem starts.
1302 Moab and Eglon’s 18 year oppression starts. Eglon, a Moabite king is strengthened by God against the apostate Israelites [Judges 3:12]. The Israelites then serve Eglon for 18 years [Judges 3:12 – 14]. So the children of Israel served Eglon the king of Moab eighteen years [Judges 3:14]. Eglon the king of Moab+children of Ammon and Amalek against Israel.
1300 / 1299 Battle of Kadesh. A Hittite army catches an Egyptian division by surprise and comes close to capturing the Egyptian pharaoh Ramses II. The Egyptian army rallies, turning what looked like a disastrous defeat into something of a draw. Kadesh did not mean the fall of Egypt’s 19th Dynasty, but it did put an end to their dreams of expansion. On the Hittite side, the battle inspired, not confidence, but a certain timidity, when it came to hostilities with Egypt. While avoiding war, both sides were slow to make peace. After 16 years [1283] they would finally conclude a formal treaty, the terms of which the Egyptians inscribed on the walls of the temple at Karnak.
c. 1295 Haremhab end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 18].
c. 1295 Ramesses I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 19].
c. 1294 Ramesses I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 19].
c. 1294 Seti I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 19].
1294 Elimelech and Naomi with their 2 sons, Mahlon and Chilion, move to Moab for 10 years.
1290 Elimelech dies.
1290 Sodomy of Benjamin [Judges 19 – 21].
1290 Mahlon and Chilion marry Moabites [Ruth 1:4]. Mahlon marries Ruth and Chilion marries Orpah.
1284 Moab and Eglon’s 18 year oppression ends. Ehud [from the Tribe of Benjamin] is raised up by God. But when the children of Israel cried unto the LORD, the LORD raised them up a deliverer, Ehud the son of Gera, a Benjamite, a man lefthanded: and by him the children of Israel sent a present unto Eglon the king of Moab [Judges 3:15]. Eglon, a Moabite king who was grossly overweight, is killed by Ehud, a left – handed Benjamite during the time of the Judges. [Judges 3:16 – 22]. After 18 years the land then had rest from Moab for 80 years [Judges 3:30].
1284 Ehud 1302 – 18 = 1284 then 80 peace = 1204 B.C..
1284 Mahlon and Chilion die. Naomi’s 2 traitorous sons are killed in action as Moabite warriors by Ehud [Ruth 1:5].
1284 18 year famine in Bethlehem ends.
1284 Naomi returns to Bethlehem.
1284 Ruth accepts God [Ruth 1:6].
1283 Boaz the son of Rahab the harlot marries Ruth [Ruth 4:13]. Boaz was a close relative of Naomi’s husband’s family. He was therefore obliged by the Levirate law to marry Mahlon’s widow, Ruth, in order to carry on his family’s inheritance. Boaz was the son of Rahab [who may be Rahab of Jericho] and Salmon, he was a wealthy landowner of Bethlehem in Judea.
1280? Shamgar [from the Tribe of Naphtali ?] becomes judge. And after him was Shamgar the son of Anath, which slew of the Philistines six hundred men with an ox goad: and he also delivered Israel. And the children of Israel again did evil in the sight of the LORD, when Ehud was dead [Judges 3:31-4:1]. In the days of Shamgar the son of Anath, in the days of Jael, the highways were unoccupied, and the travellers walked through byways. [The inhabitants of] the villages ceased, they ceased in Israel, until that I Deborah arose, that I arose a mother in Israel [Judges 5:6-7].
1280?-1279? According to a tradition represented in Josephus (Ant., V, iv, 3), Shamgar died in the year he became judge.
1279 Start of Israel’s servitude of 20 years; the oppressing nation being the Canaanites. Jabin king of Hazor and Sisera, the captain of Jabin’s army [Judges 4:1-3].
c. 1279 Seti I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 19].
c. 1279 Ramesses II start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 19].
c.1274 After this date, the power of both the Hittites and Egyptians begins to decline yet again due to the power of the Assyrians.
1263 or 1259 Ramesses II makes peace agreement with the Hittites.
1259 And Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lapidoth, she judged Israel at that time [Judges 4:4]. Deborah [from the Tribe of Ephraim and the wife of Lapidoth] and Barak [from the Tribe of Naphtali and the son of Abinoam] [Judges 4]. Barak was Deborah’s commander.
1259 Jael, Heber’s wife, kills Sisera. Jabin king of Hazor 20 years of oppression ends. The Song of Deborah and Barak [Judges 5:1 – 30].
1259 End of Israel’s 20 year servitude to the Canaanites. Deborah judges Israel for 40 years [Judges 5:31].
1259 Deborah’s victory over Canaan. Deborah kills Jabin. Deborah and Barak arouse the national spirit and gather together ten thousand men. They gain a great and decisive victory over Jabin in the plain of Esdraelon [Judges 4:10-16]. This was the first great victory Israel had gained since the days of Joshua. For the next forty years, they never needed to fight another battle with the Canaanites [Judges 5:31].
c. 1240 The Philistines expand their influence into Cyprus and Canaan.
1237 Battle of Nihriya. This was the culminating point of the hostilities between the Hittites and the Assyrians for control over the remnants of the former empire of Mitanni. Assyrian victory.
1219 40 years of peace ends.
1219 And the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the LORD: and the LORD delivered them into the hand of Midian seven years [Judges 6:1].
1219 The 4th oppression was brought by Midianites aided by Amalekites and “other eastern peoples.” This combined enemy came from the east to plunder the grain-growing areas of Israel, primarily the Esdraelon Valley and the Mediterranean coastlands as far south as Gaza [Judges 6:4]. For the next 7 years the invaders strip these areas of livestock and grain. The Israelites’ hide in caves.
1213 God unseals Ruth’s womb. Ruth is about 90 and Naomi is about 120 years old.
1213 Obed born [Ruth 4:13].
c. 1213 Merneptah start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 19].
1213 / 1212 Ramesses II end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 19].
1212 End of Israel’s 7 year servitude to the Midianites.
1212 The children of Israel cry for relief. Gideon [Jerubbaal] raised up by God to fight the Midianites [Judges 6 – 8]. Gideon [Jerubbaal] becomes judge for 40 years with peace in the land [Judges 8:28].
1204 Israel’s 80 years of Moab peace ends.
c. 1203 Merneptah end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 19].
c. 1203 Amenmesse start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 19].
c. 1200 Amenmesse end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 19].
c. 1200 Seti II start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 19].
c. 1194 Seti II end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 19].
c. 1194 Siptah start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 19].
c. 1188 Siptah end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 19].
c. 1188 Tawosret start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 19].
c. 1186 Tawosret end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 19].
c. 1186 Sethnakht start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 20].
c. 1184 Sethnakht end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 20].
c. 1184 Ramesses III start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 20].
c. 1179 End of the Hittites. The advancing “Sea Peoples” claim land en route and take Cilicia and Cyprus away from the Hittites which cuts off their coveted trade routes. This leaves the Hittite homelands vulnerable to attack from all directions, and there capital Hattusa is burnt to the ground following a combined onslaught from new waves of invaders, the Kaskas, Phrygians and Bryges. The Hittite Kingdom thus vanishes from historical records, much of the territory being seized by Assyria. The Hittites now splinter into several independent “Neo-Hittite” city-states, some of which survive until the 8th century B.C. before succumbing to the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
c.1176 The Battle of the Delta was a sea battle between Egypt and the “Sea Peoples”, when the Egyptian pharaoh Ramesses III repulsed a major sea invasion. Egypt was threatened with a massive land and sea invasion by the “Sea Peoples”, a coalition of foreign enemies which included the Tjeker, the Shekelesh, the Deyen, the Weshesh, the Teresh and the Sherden. They were comprehensively defeated by Ramesses III.
1172 Gideon [Jerubbaal] dies. 40 years of peace ends [Judges 5:31 & 8:28].
1172 Abimelech [Abimelek] usurps power in Israel. Abimelech [Abimelek] conspires to become king [Judges 9]. Abimelech [Abimelek], the judge, was the son of Gideon and became a Judge of Israel, but it was not by God’s will. He was Gideon’s son by a concubine from Shechem.
1169 Plot against Abimelech [Abimelek] [Judges 9:22]. God sends an evil spirit between Abimelech [Abimelek] and the men of Shechem [Judges 9:23]. Abimelech [Abimelek] is slain [Judges 9:50-57].
1169 Eli born. Eli was a descendant of Ithamar, the fourth and youngest son of Aaron the High Priest. He became High Priest after the death of Pinehas, the son of Elazar, Ithamar’s older brother.
1169 Tola [Judges 10:1 – 2]. After the time of Abimelech [Abimelek], a man of Issachar named Tola son of Puah, the son of Dodo, rose to save Israel. He lived in Shamir, in the hill country of Ephraim. He led Israel twenty – three years; then he died, and was buried in Shamir.
1162 Jair [Judges 10:3 – 5]. Tola was followed by Jair of Gilead, who led Israel twenty – two years. Jair judged in an unidentified city of Gilead across the Jordan. When Jair died, he was buried in Kamon. Tola and Jair served in widely separated parts of the country and were contemporaneous.
c. 1153 Ramesses III end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 20].
c. 1153 Ramesses IV start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 20].
c. 1147 Ramesses IV end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 20].
c. 1147 Ramesses V start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 20].
1146 Tola dies.
c. 1143 Ramesses V end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 20].
c. 1143 Ramesses VI start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 20].
1140 Jair dies.
1140 Again Israel worships the heathen gods [Judges 10:6].
1140 Israel’s 18 year servitude to the Ammonites starts [Judges 10:8].
c. 1136 Ramesses VI end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 20].
c. 1136 Ramesses VII start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 20].
c. 1129 Ramesses VII end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 20].
c. 1129 Ramesses VIII start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 20].
1126 Plot against Abimelech [Abimelek] [Judges 9:22].
1126 Abimelech [Abimelek] is slain [Judges 9:50].
c. 1126 Ramesses VIII end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 20].
c. 1126 Ramesses IX start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 20].
1122 Israel’s 18 year servitude to the Ammonites ends [Judges 10:8].
1122 Jephthah’s covenant with the Gileadites [Judges 11]. Jephthah the Gileadite was the son of an harlot: and Gilead begat Jephthah [Judges 11:1]. Jephthah becomes judge for 6 years [Judges 12:7].
1116 Jephthah dies.
1116 Ibzan becomes judge for 7 years [Judges 12:8 – 9].
1111 Eli, age 58, becomes a judge & priest for 40 years [1 Samuel 4:18]. Eli was a Jewish priest living in the days of the judges and serving God at the tabernacle in Shiloh, a city near the hill country of Ephraim [1 Samuel 1:1 – 3].
1109 Ibzan dies.
1109 Elon becomes judge for 10 years [Judges 12:11].
c. 1108 Ramesses IX end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 20].
c. 1108 Ramesses X start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 20].
1102 SAMUEL born to Elkanah & Hannah [1 Samuel 1]. Elkanah had 2 wives and Peninnah already had children. Samuel, when weaned and still a young child, is given by Hannah to Eli to live in the house of the LORD in Shiloh.
1102 Hannah’s song [1 Samuel 2:1 – 11].
1100 The wickedness of Eli’s sons – Hophni and Phinehas [1 Samuel 2:12 – 17].
1099 Elon dies.
1099 Abdon [Abdan] becomes judge for 8 years [Judges 12:14]. Josephus also mentions that Abdon had a peaceful reign.
c. 1099 Ramesses X end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 20].
c. 1099 Ramesses XI start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 20].
1094 Samuel [age 8] is called by God [1 Samuel 3]. God calls Samuel and then Eli explains the vision.
1091 Abdon [Abdan] dies.
1091 Israel oppressed by the Philistines [Judges 13]. 40 year Philistine occupation begins [Judges 13:1].
1091 Samson born to Manoah & Hazelelponi or Z?llpunith [Judges 13:2 – 24]. Manoah was of the tribe of Dan and lived in the city of Zorah. For, lo, thou shalt conceive, and bear a son; and no razor shall come on his head: for the child shall be a Nazarite unto God from the womb: and he shall begin to deliver Israel out of the hand of the Philistines [Judges 13:5].
1080 Saul born.
c. 1080 ? High Priest of Amun Herihor.
c. 1076 ? High Priest of Amun Herihor.
c. 1076 ? High Priest of Amun Paiankh.
1075 Samson’s marriage and riddle [Judges 14]. When he was a young adult, Samson left the hills of his people to see the cities of the Philistines. He fell in love with a Philistine woman from Timnah, whom he decided to marry, ignoring the objections of his parents, who were concerned because the Israelites were forbidden to marry gentiles. Together with his wife, Manoah subsequently tried to dissuade Samson from marrying the Philistine woman, but travelled with him to Timnah for the wedding ceremony when they were unable to do so.
1075 Samson burns the Philistine crops [Judges 15].
1071 Samson becomes judge for 20 years [Judges 15:20].
1071 Samson and Delilah [Judges 16].
1071 Battle of Aphek [Ebenezer] [1 Samuel 4:1]. Philistines capture the Ark of the Covenant from Israel in battle. [1 Samuel 4 – 5].
1071 Eli [age 98] is told that his two sons [Hophni and Phinehas] are dead and that the Ark has been taken; he then falls backwards of his seat, breaks his neck and dies [1 Samuel 4:15 – 18].
1071 Samuel becomes a judge.
1071 After 7 months the Philistine city leaders decide to return the Ark of the Covenant to the Israelites [1 Samuel 6:1].
1071 Ark is brought to Abinadab’s house to be kept by Eleazar for 20 years [1 Samuel 7:1 – 2].
1071 Israelites repent at Mizpeh [Mizpah] following Samuel’s message [1 Samuel 7:3 – 8].
c. 1070 Ramesses XI end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 20].
c. 1070 High Priest of Amun Paiankh.
c. 1070 Smendes start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
c. 1070 High Priest of Amun Painedjem I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
1065 Jonathan born to Saul [age 15] & Ahinoam, a daughter of Ahimaaz, who became a mother to Saul’s 4 sons and 2 daughters, one of whom is Michal, David’s first wife.
c. 1054 High Priest of Amun Masaharta start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
1051 Samuel, who had gained national prominence as a prophet (1 Samuel 3:20), summons the people to the hill of Mizpeh [Mizpah], and leads them into battle against the Philistines. 40 year Philistine occupation ends. [1 Samuel 7:13 – 17].
1051 Samuel, now old, makes his sons, Joel and Abiah, priests; they fail Israel. Israel ask Samuel to “Give us a king to judge us”. [1 Samuel 8:1 – 9].
1051 Samson dies [Judges 16:30 – 31].
1050 300 YEAR PERIOD OF THE JUDGES ENDS. 1 Samuel tell us that Eli and Samuel were the two last judges.
1050 Saul [age 30] becomes king [1 Samuel 13:1].
1050 Elders of Israel request a king from Solomon. Saul becomes king [1 Samuel 8 – 10] & [1 Samuel 10:24 & Acts 10:21]. Saul becomes Israel’s 1st king [Acts 13:21] at age 30 and reigns for 40 years [1 Samuel 11:15; 13:1].
1048 Jonathan [age 17] smites the garrison of the Philistines at Geba [1 Samuel 13:3].
c. 1046 High Priest of Amun Masaharta end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
c. 1046 High Priest of Amun Djedkhonsefankh start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
c. 1045 High Priest of Amun Djedkhonsefankh end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
c. 1045 High Priest of Amun Menkheperre start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
c. 1044 Smendes end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
c. 1044 Amenemnisu start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
1042 Saul defeats the Ammonites [1 Samuel 11, 12].
1041 Saul’s war with the Philistines [1 Samuel 13].
1041 Jonathan’s miraculous victory [1 Samuel 14].
1040 DAVID born to Jesse & Nitzevet in Bethlehem.
c. 1040 Amenemnisu end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
c. 1040 Psusennes I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
c. 1032 High Priest of Amun Painedjem I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
1030 Samuel tells Saul his kingdom will not continue, that God is seeking a man after His own heart [1 Samuel 13:14].
1030 Jonathan is a mighty warrior of whom his own father is jealous [1 Samuel 13 – 14]. He is fiercely and loyally defended by his men against Saul’s intent to kill him.
1028 Saul’s disobedience and Samuel’s rebuke [1 Samuel 15].
c. 1028 David is anointed by Samuel [1 Samuel 16] at age 10 – 13 – which Saul undoubtedly hears about, later choosing to keep David nearby for observation and ready dispatch.
1027 David, bar – mizvah’d, serves Saul in an ad hoc musical capacity [1 Samuel 16:17, “provide me a man”]. He returns to his father’s house to tend sheep, but comes to Saul when needed – [1 Samuel 17:15].
c. 1025 Because of his reputation David is appointed armour – bearer to Saul [1 Samuel 16:21 – it may be mentioned in chap. 16, but the actual event is probably later – i.e. “he [later] became…”].
c. 1025 David [age about 15] is anointed king. Samuel anoints David at Bethlehem [1 Samuel 16].
c. 1024 David kills Goliath probably at 15 – 17 years of age [1 Samuel 17]
c. 1024 Jonathan, who is much older than David, becomes one in spirit with him [1 Samuel 18:1].
1020 Saul banishes David from his court, yet he makes him commander of a thousand [1 Samuel 18:13].
1018 David’s success as a warrior has made Saul offer him the hand of his daughter Michal “as a snare.” [1 Samuel 18:21]. Michal marries him, and she loves him [1 Samuel 18:27 – 28].
1018 Saul kills priests at Nob [1 Samuel 22].
1017 At Jonathan’s warning [and Michal’s], David flees from Saul to Samuel at Ramah [1 Samuel 19]. Michal remains behind with Saul. An evil spirit caused Saul to pursue David, but he is stopped by the Spirit of God at Ramah [Psalm 59]. David found Samuel at Ramah, and told him what Saul had done. The prophet, fearless of the king’s displeasure, welcomed the fugitive, and Samuel and David dwelt together at Naioth. This refuge was a peaceful place in contrast with the royal palace. It was here, amid the hills, that the honored prophet of the Lord continued his work, even when the shadows of age were gathering about him. A company of seers was with him, and they studied closely the will of God, and listened reverently to the words of instruction that fell from the lips of Samuel. The closing work of the servant of God was to instruct the seers in the school of the prophets; precious were the lessons that David learned from the teacher of Israel. [ST, August 24, 1888 par. 3].
1017 David and Jonathan covenant together at Ramah [1 Samuel 20].
1016 David flees to Nob and is helped by Ahimelech the priest [1 Samuel 21]. He gives David the consecrated bread, and the sword of Goliath. Doeg the Edomite is present [Psalm 56].
1016 David flees to Achish, king of the Philistine city of Gath, the first time [1 Samuel 21:10]. He feigns madness to protect himself and his men, and he is expelled [Psalm 34].
1015 David hides at the Cave at Adullam [1 Samuel 22:1 – 5] where he is joined by 30 chiefs. Three enter the camp of the Philistines to get David an off – handed request for a drink of water [1Chr. 11:15]. His father’s household joins him there [Psalm 142].
1015 David takes his parents to Mizpeh [Mizpah] of Moab leaving them with the king [1 Samuel 22:3 – 4].
1015 Doeg the Edomite, at Saul’s command, kills Ahimelech the priest who helped David and his men. He also kills 85 priests and everyone at Nob for helping David. Abiathar, the son of the priest flees to David with the ephod [1 Samuel 22:6 – 23 & Psalm 52].
1015 David liberates Keilah from the Philistines [1 Samuel 23:6]. Saul hears of it and gathers his forces against David at Keilah. Using the ephod, David learns that the people of Keilah will betray him to Saul, and so he flees again. Jonathan visits him at Ziph and covenants with him again [23:16]. Ziphites betray David, but God hides him from Saul in the Desert of Ziph [Psalm 63].
1015 Saul pursues David at en – Gedi. [Psalm 54]. David cuts of a corner of his robe in the cave near the Crags of the Wild goats. When Saul leaves the cave, David pleads his cause and his intent not to harm Saul [1 Samuel 24]. He returns to his stronghold [Masada?] [Psalm 57]. This is just before Samuel dies [1 Samuel 25:1].
1015 David is living “off the land” as he encounters Nabal and Abigail at Carmel [1 Samuel 25]. His men kindly provide protection for Nabal’s flocks expecting to be paid, but Nabal rebuffs them. David threatens to kill Nabal for his affront until Abigail diplomatically intercedes with food and praise. David has married Ahinoam of Jezreel [1 Samuel 25:43]. When Nabal dies shortly after this incident, David marries Abigail as well. In David’s absence, Saul gives Michal to Paltiel in Gallim, which is probably on the border near Jerusalem.
1015 Jonathan’s friendship with David [1 Samuel 18].
1014 David encounters Saul and his 3000 men in his camp at Hakilah, having been betrayed by the Ziphites a second time. He spares Saul’s life again [1 Samuel 26]. Saul “repents” of his pursuit of David, but David doesn’t trust him.
1014 David flees to Gath a second time with 600 men and their families. Saul stops his pursuit of David [1 Samuel 27:4].
1014 David protected from Saul [1 Samuel 19].
1013 After living with Achish at Gath probably for a month or two, David asks to move to Ziklag with his men [1 Samuel 27:6]. David “serves” the Philistines for over a year [1 Samuel 27:6; 29:3]. Achish defends David against his officers [1 Samuel 29:1 – 11].
1013 David and Jonathan’s covenant [1 Samuel 20].
1013 David’s Psalm of deliverance [1 Samuel 20, Psalm 59].
1012 David at Nob and Gath [1 Samuel 21].
1012 David’s Psalm fleeing Saul [1 Samuel 21, Psalm 52].
1012 David’s Psalm before Ahimelech [1 Samuel 21, Psalm 34].
1011 David’s Psalm at Gath (1Sa 21, Psalm 56].
1011 Saul slays the priests of Nob [1 Samuel 22].
1011 David’s Psalms in the cave [1 Samuel 22, Psalms 57, 142].
1011 David flees Saul [1 Samuel 23].
1011 David’s Psalm at Keilah [1 Samuel 23, Psalm 54].
1011 David spares Saul’s life – 1st time [1 Samuel 24].
1011 David spares Saul’s life – 2nd time [1 Samuel 26].
1011 David flees to the Philistines [1 Samuel 27]. And the time that David dwelt in the country of the Philistines was a full year and four months [1 Samuel 27:7].
1010 Samuel dies [1 Samuel 25:1] and is buried in Ramah, even in his own city [1 Samuel 28:3].
1010 Saul solicits the witch of Endor to call up Samuel [1 Samuel 28:3 – 25]. She prophesies Saul will die the next day. In a battle with the Philistines on Mt. Gilboa, three of Saul’s sons [Jonathan, and Abinadab, and Malchishua] also die [1 Chronicles 10:1 – 6].
1010 Saul is wounded at the Battle of Mt. Gilboa and falls on his sword [1 Samuel 31]. Saul dies age 70 years [1 Samuel 31:3-6; 1 Chronicles 10:3-6]. Saul was buried in Zelah, in the region of Benjamin [2 Samuel 21:14]. Jonathan also dies age 55 years; he had a 5 year old son, Mephibosheth. After the deaths of Saul and Jonathan, Mephibosheth’s nurse took him and fled in panic.
1010 David hears that Saul and Jonathan are dead [2 Samuel1:1 – 16]. David’s Lament [2 Samuel 1:17 – 27].
1010 David becomes Israel’s 2nd king and reigns [7&1/2 years in Judah at Hebron and then 33 years in Israel at Jerusalem] for 40 years [2 Samuel 2 & 5:4 – 5].
1010 David’s service is “dismissed” by the Philistines. Achish sends David away [1 Samuel 29].
1010 The Amalekites raze Ziklag and take the wives of David’s men. David and 400 men recapture the women, but 200 men cannot go. David shares the plunder equally with them, and with the elders of Judah [1 Samuel 30].
c. 1010 Ishbosheth, Saul’s son and age 40 years, is proclaimed king over Israel by Abner, the captain of Saul’s army, at Mahanaim in Transjordan. He reigns for 2 years [2 Samuel 2:8 – 10].
c. 1010 Ishbosheth, with Abner as his general, liberates the remainder of the Western territory from the Philistines over a 2 year period. He is declared king over Israel, the northern kingdom [2 Samuel 2:9 – 10]. After Ishbosheth accuses Abner of infidelity with Saul’s concubine, Abner threatens his life and covenants with David, who wants Michal back [3:9 – 13]. Michal is returned to David by Ishbosheth [3:14]. Joab, David’s general, murders Abner at Hebron [3:22,27].
1008 Civil war between Abner and Joab [2 Samuel 2:12 – 17].
c. 1008 House of David strengthens [2 Samuel 3:1].
c. 1008 Asahel killed by Aber. Abner slays Asahel at Gibeon [where the sun stopped for Joshua] which begins five and a half years of war with David [2 Samuel 2:12 – 32; 3:1]. Joab murders Abner [2 Samuel 3:22].
c. 1008 The murder of Ishbosheth [2 Samuel 4]. Ishbosheth is assassinated by two of his own army captains, Rechab and Baanah [2 Samuel 4:5]. Ishbosheth Saul’s youngest son [was] forty years old when he began to reign over Israel, and reigned two years. But the house of Judah followed David [2 Samuel 2:10].
1003 Genealogies of the Israelites [1 Chronicles 1 – 9].
1003 David – 7&1/2 year reign over Judah ends & 33 year reign over Israel starts. In Jerusalem he reigned thirty and three years [1 Chronicles 3:4]. David’s total kingship lasted 40 years [1 Kings 2:11]. David [age 37] becomes king in Jerusalem and Jerusalem becomes Israel’s capital city. While at Hebron, he married Maacah [Maachah], daughter of the king of Geshur. He also married Haggith, Abital, and Eglah [2 Samuel 3:1 – 5] and has sons by all but Michal [2 Samuel 6:23], and a daughter by Maacah [Maachah] – [Tamar]. David’s sons before Bathsheba: Amnon by Ahinoam of Jezreel, Kileab by Abigail [Nabal’s widow], Absalom by Maacah the Caananite, Adonijah by Haggith, Shephatiah by Abital, Ithream by Eglah.
1003 David conquers Jerusalem [2 Samuel 5:6]. David rebuilds it, and moves there from Hebron.
1003 David starts Temple preparation [2 Samuel 7].
1002 David’s army grows [1 Chronicles 12].
1000 David fetches the Ark [1 Chronicles 13].
1000 David’s family grows [1 Chronicles 14].
1000 The Ark is returned to Jerusalem to a tent [2 Samuel 6, 1 Chronicles 15]. The tabernacle remains in Gibeon [1 Chronicles 16]. David desires to build a temple to house the ark [2 Samuel 7; 1 Chronicles 17]. God sends Nathan to David with the Davidic Covenant instead, promising a perpetual throne via his offspring [2 Samuel 7:12 – 29 & Psalms 96, 105].
998 David defeats the Philistines. David’s psalm of victory [2 Samuel 8, Psalm 60].
998 After 7 – 10 years of war, David has solidified his empire [2 Samuel 8]. David’s sons become royal advisers 2 Samuel 8:18 [though too young – probably 14 – 18 years old; it distorts their sense of self – importance].
998 David’s psalm of Zion [Psalm 15].
998 David’s psalm of glory to God [Psalm 24].
997 David, Ziba and Mephibosheth. Mephibosheth is found and David honours his pledge to Jonathan [2 Samuel 9].
996 David strengthens his kingdom [1 Chronicles 18].
995 Joab and Abishai conquer Ammon and Syria after David’s ambassadors are humiliated by Hanun, the young king of Ammon. David defeats Ammon and the Syrians. [2 Samuel 10, 1 Chronicles 19 & Psalm 60].
995 The capture of Rabbah [1 Chronicles 20].
993 David and Bathsheba [2 Samuel 11]. While tarrying in Jerusalem and allowing his generals to run their own war, David commits adultery with Bathsheba. Bathsheba was the daughter of Eliam [2 Samuel 11:3], who is also called Ammiel [1 Chronicles 3:5]. Bathsheba was the wife of Uriah the Hittite who David had killed in battle. David then takes Bathsheba as a wife.
993 Nathan confronts David and he repents. Nathan rebukes David [2 Samuel 12].
993 The child dies. David’s psalm of repentance [2 Samuel 12, Psalm 51].
c. 993 Amenemope start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
992 SOLOMON born to David & Bathsheba in Jerusalem [2 Samuel 12:24; 1 Chronicles 3:5].
992 David returns to his duties, conquering Rabbah – Ammon [2 Samuel 12:26 – 31; 1 Chronicles 20:1 – 3].
992 Rape of Tamar. Tamar is the daughter of David, and sister of Absalom. Her mother was Maacah [Maachah], daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur. She is raped by her half – brother Amnon [2 Samuel 13:1 – 22].
c. 992 High Priest of Amun Menkheperre end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
c. 992 Psusennes I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
c. 992 High Priest of Amun Smendes start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
c. 990 High Priest of Amun Smendes end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
c. 990 High Priest of Amun Painedjem II start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
990 After 2 years, Absalom causes Amnom to be slain and then flees to Geshur for 3 years [2 Samuel 13:23 – 39].
987 The widow of Tekoah’ parable [2 Samuel 14:1 – 20].
987 Absalom recalled to Jerusalem but then has to wait 2 years before seeing king David. [2 Samuel 14:21 – 33].
c. 984 Amenemope end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
c. 984 Osochor start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
979 Psalms of David [Psalms 2 – 145 (assorted)].
979 Psalms of Korah [Psalms 42 – 44, 84, 85, 87, 88].
979 Psalms of Asaph [Psalm 50, 73, 75 – 78, 80 – 83, 89].
979 Psalms of unknown authors [Psalms 1 – 150 (assorted)].
979 David forces a census [1 Chronicles 21].
979 Preparation for building the Temple [1 Chronicles 22].
979 Preparation of priesthood [1 Chronicles 23].
979 Divisions of Levites [1 Chronicles 24].
979 Preparation of sanctuary singers [1 Chronicles 25].
979 Preparation of gatekeepers and treasurers [1 Chronicles 26].
979 Preparation of government [1 Chronicles 27].
979 Absolom insurrection and death age 29 years.
c. 978 Osochor end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
c. 978 Siamun start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
977 David charges Solomon and the princes with constructing the temple [1 Chronicles 22:6 – 19].
977 Absalom murders Amnon [2 Samuel 13:23 – 38]. He is banished from the king’s presence to Geshur for 3 years.
977 Absalom pleads for and is returned to Jerusalem via Joab’s intercession and conniving use of the woman of Tekoa [2 Samuel 14]; but he is banished from the king’s presence for 2 more years.
977 Absalom begs and coerces Joab into interceding yet again that Absalom might see the king’s face. He begins his 4 – year plot against David. And it came to pass after forty years, that Absalom said unto the king, I pray thee, let me go and pay my vow, which I have vowed unto the LORD, in Hebron. For thy servant vowed a vow while I abode at Geshur in Syria, saying, If the LORD shall bring me again indeed to Jerusalem, then I will serve the LORD. [2 Samuel 14:28 – 33; 15:1 – 8].
976 Absalom’s revolt steals the hearts of the people from David [2 Samuel 15 – 19].
976 Absalom’s conspiracy [2 Samuel 15].
976 David flees Jerusalem [2 Samuel 15:13].
976 David weeps on the Mt. of Olives [2 Samuel 15:30].
972 David, Ziba and Shimei [2 Samuel 16].
972 Shimei curses David [2 Samuel 16:5].
972 Shimei, a relative of Saul, curses David on his way out of the city, but Hushai offers to be David’s ally in the palace [Psalm 3].
972 David’s Psalm of thirst for God [2 Samuel 16, Psalm 63].
972 Absalom lies with his father’s concubines as Abner had done with Saul’s [2 Samuel 16:22].
972 Hushai’s warning saves David [2 Samuel 17].
972 David psalms of deliverance [2 Samuel 17, Psalms 41, 55].
972 Hushai, against Ahithophel, advises Absalom not to pursue David immediately. As a result, David is able to conquer Absalom’s army. Ahithophel hangs himself. While riding a mule, Absalom’s hair [symbol of his pride] is caught in a tree where he hangs helplessly [2 Samuel 18:14] until slain by Joab, against David’s wishes.
972 Absalom slain by Joab [2 Samuel 18].
972 David mourns his son’s death, “Absalom, Absalom!” [2 Samuel 19:1].
972 Joab comforts David [2 Samuel 19].
972 Sheba rebels against David [2 Samuel 20].
972 No sooner has one rebellion been quashed than another arises by Sheba [2 Samuel 20]. Amasa who was appointed over the army by Absalom in place of Joab, is considered by David to be a threat in this conflict. Amasa is sent on an errand by David, but David also gives orders to Abishai to have Amasa killed. Joab kills Amasa at Gibeon and Sheba flees to Abel Beth Maacah.
972 A wise woman of the city has his head delivered to Joab to preserve the city [2 Samuel 20:4: – 22].
972 Battles with the Philistines. David is almost killed by a giant, and he is asked to stay home for his own safety. Four giants are killed in these battles [2 Samuel 21:15 – 22].
972 The Philistines no longer terrorize Israel or mock God as they had in David’s youth under Saul. David’s Eulogy [2 Samuel 23:1 – 7].
972 David’s health begins to fail him [1 Kings 1:1 – 4]. A beautiful young woman is sought to serve him and keep him warm in his old age [Abishag]. Adonijah, 4th born son of David, attempts a coup with Joab. At Nathan’s insistence, Bathsheba convinces David to declare Solomon king – in – waiting [per the promise in 2 Samuel 11:24 – 25; 1 Chronicles 22:9], and have him assume the throne [1 Kings 1:5 – 53; 1 Chronicles 23:1; 26:31]. David agrees [Solomon publicly declared pro – rex].
972 David takes 9 months to number the people as if to quantify his security [2 Samuel 24:10]. Joab, curiously, is the voice of reason here, asking David not to do it. David repents of it, but God demands a price: pestilence takes 70,000 [2 Samuel 24:15].
972 God then instructs David to buy the threshing floor of Araunah [Ornan] for an altar [2 Samuel 24:18 – 25; 1 Chronicles 21:1 – 17].
972 David offers sacrifices on the threshing floor which God accepts with an angel’s fiery sword. David fears approaching God in the tabernacle, because it now sits on the high place at Gibeon [1 Chronicles 21:26 – 30].
972 David begins the preparations to construct the temple around the altar, gathering all the materials according to the pattern God shows him [1 Chronicles 22; 28 & Psalm 30].
971 Rehoboam born.
971 David makes amends with the Gibeonites by having seven sons of Saul executed except Jonathan’s son, Mephibosheth, whom he vowed to protect [2 Samuel 21:2 – 14].
970 David calls for a National Assembly, and passes to Solomon his pattern for the temple [1 Chronicles 28].
970 The Gibeonites avenged [2 Samuel 21].
970 David’s song of deliverance [2 Samuel 22].
970 David’s last song [2 Samuel 23].
970 David’s last days [1 Chronicles 28, 29, 1 Kings 1, 2].
Davd exhorts the people to give willingly, in joyful worship [1 Chronicles 29:10 – 20]. Solomon is anointed a 2nd time, publicly, and is now co – rex [1 Chronicles 29:1 – 25]. In private, David instructs Solomon to walk with God, and after his death, to deal with Joab and Shimei son of Gera, the traitors [1 Kings 2:1 – 98].
970 David’s Psalm of steadfastness [2 Samuel 23, Psalm 108].
970 David counts the fighting men [2 Samuel 24].
970 David’s Psalm of salvation [1 Kings 2, Psalm 37].
970 David dies age 70 years [2 Samuel 5:4].
970 Solomon [age 29] becomes Israel’s 3rd king & reigns 40 years – which includes his 10 years as pro – rex. [1 Kings 11:42; 1 Chronicles 22:5].
970 David is buried in Jerusalem [2 Samuel 5:4 – 5; 1 Kings 2:10 – 12; 1 Chronicles 29:26 – 30], having served God’s purposes in his own generation [Acts 13:22, 36].
c. 969 High Priest of Amun Painedjem II end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
c. 969 High Priest of Amun Psusennes start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
968 A 3 year famine occurs as a result of Saul’s attack on the Gibeonites [2 Samuel 21:1]. The attack violated a covenant made with them by Joshua [Joshua 9:16]. [1 Chronicles 21:12 – 14].
967 Psalm for Solomon [2 Chronicles 1, Psalm 72].
967 Solomon asks for wisdom [2 Chronicles 1, 1 Kings 3].
967 Psalm of Korah [1 Kings 3, Psalm 45].
967 Solomon’s preparations for the Temple [1 Kings 5]. This became known as Solomon’s Temple and it replaced the Tabernacle constructed in the Sinai Desert under the auspices of Moses, as well as local sanctuaries, and altars in the hills.
966 In Jerusalem, construction begins on the building of SOLOMON’S TEMPLE in Solomon’s 4th year of reign [1 Kings 6, 2 Chronicles 2]. And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon’s reign over Israel, in the month Zif, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the Lord. [1 Kings 6:1].
966 God’s covenant with Solomon [1 Kings 9].
966 Temple furnishings [2 Chronicles 4].
959 Solomon’s Temple is finished. So was he seven years in building it [1 Kings 6:38].
959 The Temple dedication. Solomon holds a feast for all of Israel [1 Kings 8:1 – 2].
959 The Ark is brought into the Temple [1 Kings 8:3 – 9, 2 Chronicles 5].
959 God’s Glory fills the Temple [1 Kings 8:10 – 13, 2 Chronicles 7].
959 Psalms of Solomon [2 Chronicles 7, Psalms 135, 136].
959 Solomon’s prayers and blessing [2 Chronicles 8:14 – 66].
959 Solomon psalm of blessing [Psalm 127].
c. 959 Siamun end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
c. 959 High Priest of Amun Psusennes end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
c. 959 Psusennes II start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
958 Start of the building of Solomon’s own house; this takes 13 years [1 Kings 7].
950 The proverbs of Solomon [Proverbs 1 – 29].
950 The words of Agur [Proverbs 30].
950 king Lemuel’s proverb [Proverbs 31].
950 Solomon’s song of songs [Song of Solomon 1 – 8].
946 Solomon’s own house is completed after 13 years [1 Kings 7:1]. It took 20 years for the Temple & the house to be built [1 Kings 9:10].
946 Mutual presents of Solomon and Hiran [1 Kings 9:10].
946 The Queen of Sheba visits Solomon [1 Kings 10, 2 Chronicles 9].
945 Sheshhonk [Shishak] becomes pharaoh of Egypt.
c. 945 Psusennes II end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 21].
c. 945 Sheshonq I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 22 [Libyan]].
939 Solomon’s wives and idolatry [1 Kings 11].
937 Ecclesiastes [Words of the Preacher] [Ecclesiastes 1 – 12].
c. 933 Ahijah the Shilonite, was a Levite prophet of Shiloh in the days of Solomon. He encouraged a revolt against Solomon and foretold to Jeroboam that he would become king.
931 Solomon’s reign ends & Israel is divided into Israel & Judah [1 Kings 12, 13]. And the time that Solomon reigned in Jerusalem over all Israel [was] forty years [1 Kings 11:42]. Solomon dies age 61 of natural causes. The nation splits after Solomon.
931 Rehoboam [age 41] initially becomes king of Israel and Judah but Jeroboam rebels and sets up a rival Northern Kingdom.
931 Rehoboam – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] start – 17 years.
931 Jeroboam I – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] start – 22 years.
930 Israelites rebel against Rehoboam [2 Chronicles 10].
930 Rehoboam’s reign over Judah [2 Chronicles 11].
927 Rehoboam’s sin [2 Chronicles 12].
926 Invasion by Shishak [1 Kings 14:25].
926 Negev border fortresses are destroyed.
925 Ahijah’s prophecies against Jeroboam [1 Kings 14].
c. 924 Sheshonq I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 22 [Libyan]].
c. 924 Osorkon I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 22 [Libyan]].
913 Rehoboam – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] end [mostly bad] [2 Chronicles 10 – 12]. Rehoboam dies age 58 years. And Rehoboam the son of Solomon reigned in Judah. Rehoboam [was] forty and one years old when he began to reign, and he reigned seventeen years in Jerusalem, the city which the LORD did choose out of all the tribes of Israel, to put his name there. And his mother’s name [was] Naamah an Ammonitess [1 Kings 14:21].
913 Abijah [Abijam] – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] start – 3 years.
913 Civil war against Jeroboam [2 Chronicles 13].
913 Asa destroys idolatry [2 Chronicles 14].
912 Assyrian king Adad – nirari II start of reign – son of Ashur – Dan [II].
911 Abijah [Abijam] – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] end [mostly bad] [1 Kings 15, 2 Chronicles 13]. Abijah dies.
911 Asa – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] start – 41 years.
910 Jeroboam, the 1st king of the northern Hebrew Northern Kingdom of Israel, dies and is succeeded by his son Nadab. Jeroboam I – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] end [bad]. Jeroboam dies. And the days which Jeroboam reigned [were] two and twenty years: and he slept with his fathers, and Nadab his son reigned in his stead [1 Kings 14:20].
910 Nadab – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] start – 2 years. And Nadab the son of Jeroboam began to reign over Israel in the second year of Asa king of Judah, and reigned over Israel two years. [1 Kings 15:25].
c. 910 King Asa carries out serious reforms in Judah and God is pleased with his efforts. [2 Chronicles 15].
909 Jehu’s prophecy against Baasha [1 Kings 16].
909 Nadab – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] end [bad]. And he did evil in the sight of the LORD, and walked in the way of his father, and in his sin wherewith he made Israel to sin. [1 Kings 15:26].
909 Baasha [Bausha] – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] start – 24 years. Even in the third year of Asa king of Judah did Baasha slay him, and reigned in his stead. [1 Kings 15:28]. In the third year of Asa king of Judah began Baasha the son of Ahijah to reign over all Israel in Tirzah, twenty and four years. [1 Kings 15:33].
c. 909 Hanani’s rebuke. King Asa is judged by God through the prophet Hanani and Asa’s latter years as a ruler is marked by disobedience and unfaithfulness. [2 Chronicles 16].
908 Jehoshaphat born to Asa & Azubah, the daughter of Shilhi [2 Chronicles 20:31].
904 ELIJAH born to ? & ?[f.]. Of great importance to the church is the history of Elijah. Elijah was not called from a high station in life or from a city of renown to take his place in the work of God. He was born among the mountains of Gilead, on the other side of the Jordan, and came from among a nation that was overspread with the idolatry and the abominations of the Amorites. [Review and Herald, January 25, 1912 par. 7].
891 Assyrian king Adad – nirari II end of reign.
891 Assyrian king Tukulti – Ninurta II start of reign – son of Adad – nirari [II].
890 Benhadad becomes king of Syria.
c. 890 Sheshonq II start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 22 [Libyan]].
c. 890 Sheshonq II end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 22 [Libyan]].
c. 889 Osorkon I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 22 [Libyan]].
c. 889 Takelot I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 22 [Libyan]].
886 Baasha [Bausha] – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] end [bad]. And he did evil in the sight of the LORD, and walked in the way of Jeroboam, and in his sin wherewith he made Israel to sin. [1 Kings 15:34].
886-874 Elah, Zimri and Omri [1 Kings 16:5].
886 Elah – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] start – 2 years.
885 Elah – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] end [bad].
885 Zimri – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] start – 7 days.
885 Zimri – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] end [bad].
885 Omri * – co-regent king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] start – 11 years.
885 Tibni * – co-regent king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] start – 5 years.
885 * After the death of Zimri, Tibni ruled half the nation and Omri ruled the other half [1 Kings 16:21 – 22]. Except for this brief mention in Scripture nothing else is known about Tibni.
884 Assyrian king Tukulti – Ninurta II end of reign.
884 Assyrian king Ashur – nasir – pal II start of reign – son of Tukulti – Ninurta [II].
880 Tibni * – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] end.
880 * After the death of Tibni, Omri became sole king of the Northern kingdom.
880 Omri becomes sole king of Israel [Northern Kingdom].
874 Omri – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] end [very bad].
874 Ahab – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] start – 22 years. Ahab’s wicked reign [1 Kings 16:27].
c. 874 Takelot I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 22 [Libyan]].
c. 874 Osorkon II start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 22 [Libyan]].
873 King Asa becomes very week and immobile in his old age and he has to share the throne with his son Jehoshaphat.
873 Jehoshaphat [age 35 years] – co-regent king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] start – 25 years. And Jehoshaphat reigned over Judah: he was thirty and five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned twenty and five years in Jerusalem. And his mother’s name was Azubah the daughter of Shilhi. [2 Chronicles 20:31].
870 Asa – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] end [good] [2 Chronicles 14 – 16]. And Asa slept with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the city of David his father: and Jehoshaphat his son reigned in his stead. [1 Kings 15:24, 2 Chronicles 17].
870 Jehoshaphat [age 38 years] – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] start – 22 years.
c. 865 Harsiese start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 22 [Libyan]].
c. 865 Harsiese end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 22 [Libyan]].
863 Elijah prays for drought [1 Kings 17].
863 Elijah fed by ravens [1 Kings 17:3].
863 The widow at Zarephath [1 Kings 17:7].
863 Elijah on Mt. Carmel [1 Kings 18].
859 Shalmaneser III becomes king of Assyria.
859 Assyrian king Ashur – nasir – pal II end of reign.
859 Assyrian king Shalmaneser III start of reign – son of Ashur – nasir – pal [II].
858 Elijah flees Jezebel [1 Kings 19].
858 Elisha is called [1 Kings 19:19].
857 Ben – Hadad attacks Samaria [1 Kings 20].
857 Ahab defeats Ben – Hadad [1 Kings 20:14].
855 Ahab takes Naboth’s vineyard [1 Kings 21].
853 Ahab – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] end [extremely bad]. Ahab dies in the battle at Ramothgilead – Israel and Judah against Syria [1 Kings 22].
853 Ahaziah – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] start – 2 years. Ahaziah the son of Ahab began to reign over Israel in Samaria the seventeenth year of Jehoshaphat king of Judah, and reigned two years over Israel. [1 Kings 22:51].
853 The vision of Obadiah [Obadiah 1].
853 Jehoshaphat allies with Ahab [2 Chronicles 18].
853 Jehosaphat’s deeds [2 Chronicles 19].
853 War with Ammon and Moab [2 Chronicles 20].
853 Jehoram [age 32 years] – co-regent king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] start – 8 years. Now Jehoram the son of Ahab began to reign over Israel in Samaria the eighteenth year of Jehoshaphat king of Judah, and reigned twelve years. [2 Kings 3:1, 2 Chronicles 20:31].
852 Moab rebels against Israel after the death of Ahab [2 Kings 1:1].
852 Ahaziah – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] end [bad]. Ahaziah falls down through a lattice in his upper chamber. So he died according to the word of the LORD which Elijah had spoken. And Jehoram reigned in his stead in the second year of Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat king of Judah; because he had no son. [2 Kings 1:2 – 18].
852 Joram – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] start – 12 years.
851 ELIJAH [age 53] is taken up to HEAVEN [2 Kings 2]. Note: In Gematria, 53 = Faithful Witness.
851 ELISHA succeeds Elijah [2 Kings 2:12]. Elisha begins to prophesy.
c. 850 Osorkon II end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 22 [Libyan]].
c. 850 Takelot II start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 22 [Libyan]].
850 Jehoram meets Moab rebellion [2 Kings 3].
849 The widow’s oil [2 Kings 4].
849 Elisha raises the Shunammite boy [2 Kings 4:8].
849 The healing of Naaman [2 Kings 5].
848 Jehoshaphat – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] end [good] [2 Chronicles 17 – 20]. Now Jehoshaphat slept with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the city of David. And Jehoshaphat slept with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the city of David his father: and Jehoram his son reigned in his stead. [1 Kings 22:50]. And Jehoram his son reigned in his stead. [2 Chronicles 21:1].
848 Jehoram [age 32 years] – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] start – 8 years [2 Kings 8:17, 2 Chronicles 20:31].
848 Elisha floats an axehead [2 Kings 6].
848 Elisha promises plenty in Samaria [2 Kings 7].
847 The Shunammite’s land [2 Kings 8].
841 Joram – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] end [mostly bad].
841 Jehu – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] start – 28 years.
841 Jehoram – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] end [bad] [2 Chronicles 21].
841 Ahaziah – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] start – 1 year.
841 Ahaziah – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] end [bad] [2 Chronicles 22:1 – 19].
841 Athaliah [f.] – queen of Judah [Southern Kingdom] start – 6 years.
841 Jehu becomes king of Israel [Northern Kingdom].
841 Ahaziah becomes king of Judah [Southern Kingdom].
841 Hazael becomes king of Syria.
841 Jehu reigns in Israel [2 Kings 9].
841 Jehu kills Joram [2 Kings 9:11].
841 Ahab’s family killed [2 Kings 10].
841 Baal worshippers killed [2 Kings 10:18].
841 Joash escapes Athaliah [2 Kings 11].
841 Ahaziah succeeds Jehoram in Judah [2 Chronicles 22].
841 Jehoiada makes Joash king [2 Chronicles 23].
837 Jehoram – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] end [bad] [2 Chronicles 21]. And he did evil in the sight of the LORD, and walked in the way of his father, and in the way of his mother, and in the way of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin: For he served Baal, and worshipped him, and provoked to anger the LORD God of Israel, according to all that his father had done. [1 Kings 22:52 – 53].
835 Athaliah [f.] – queen of Judah [Southern Kingdom] end [devilish] [2 Chronicles 22:10 – 23:21].
835 Joash – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] start – 40 years.
835 Joash becomes king of Judah [Southern Kingdom].
835 Joash’s good reign [2 Chronicles 24, [2 Kings 12].
835 The Word of the LORD to Joel [Joel 1 – 3].
830 Joel prophecies.
c. 825 Takelot II end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 22 [Libyan]].
c. 825 Sheshonq III start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 22 [Libyan]].
824 Assyrian king Shalmaneser III end of reign.
824 Assyrian king Shamshi – Adad V start of reign – son of Shalmaneser [III].
c. 818 Pedubaste I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 23].
814 Jehu – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] end [mostly bad].
814 Jehoahaz – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] start – 17 years. Jehoahaz’s wicked reign [2 Kings 13].
812 Joash orders Temple repairs [2 Kings 12:6].
811 Assyrian king Shamshi – Adad V end of reign.
811 Assyrian king Shammu – ramat, regent, start of reign.
c. 810 Assyrian king Adad – nirari III start of reign – son of Shamshi – Adad [V].
c. 810 Assyrian king Shammu – ramat, regent, end of reign.
807 Azariah [Uzziah] born to Amaziah & Jecholiah.
801 Benhadad II becomes king of Syria.
c. 800 Iuput I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 23].
c. 800 Iuput I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 23].
798 Jehoahaz – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] end [bad].
798 Jehoash – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] start – 16 years.
798 Jehoash becomes king of Israel [Northern Kingdom].
796 Joash – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] end [mostly good] [2 Chronicles 24].
796 Amaziah – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] start – 29 years. Amaziah’s good reign [2 Kings 14, 2 Chronicles 25].
793 Jeroboam II – co-regent king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] start – 41 years.
c. 793 Pedubaste I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 23].
c. 793 Sheshonq IV start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 23].
791 Azariah [Uzziah] – co-regent king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] start – 52 years. In the twenty and seventh year of Jeroboam king of Israel began Azariah son of Amaziah king of Judah to reign. Sixteen years old was he when he began to reign, and he reigned two and fifty years in Jerusalem. And his mother’s name was Jecholiah of Jerusalem [2 Kings 15:1-2]. [Chronicles 26].
c. 790? Jonah – prophet re. Israel.
c. 787 Sheshonq IV end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 23].
c. 787 Osorkon III start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 23].
c. 785 Jonah goes to Nineveh.
783 Shalmaneser IV becomes king of Assyria.
783 Jonah begins his ministry.
783 Assyrian king Adad – nirari III end of reign.
783 Assyrian king Shalmaneser IV start of reign – son of Adad – nirari [III].
782 Jehoash – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] end [bad].
782 Jeroboam II becomes sole king of Israel [Northern Kingdom].
776 Olympic games begin in Greece.
773 Assyrian king Shalmaneser IV end of reign.
773 Assyrian king Ashur – Dan III start of reign – son of Shalmaneser [IV].
c. 773 Sheshonq III end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 22 [Libyan]].
c. 773 Pami start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 22 [Libyan]].
767 Amaziah – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] end [mostly good] [2 Chronicles 25].
767 Azariah [Uzziah] becomes sole king of Judah [Southern Kingdom].
767 Amos – prophet re. Israel & Judah start – 14 years.
c. 767 Pami end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 22 [Libyan]].
c. 767 Sheshonq V start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 22 [Libyan]].
c. 764 Takelot III start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 23].
762 ISAIAH – prophet re. Judah start – 60 years.
761 The words of Amos, who was among the herdmen of Tekoa, which he saw concerning Israel in the days of Uzziah king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash king of Israel, two years before the earthquake [Amos 1:1].
760 Jonah sent to Nineveh [Jonah 1 – 4].
759 A great earthquake occurs; it affects from Egypt to Asia Minor but, in particular, the whole of Israel and Jordan. Amos speaks of the land being shaken [Amos 8:8], houses being smashed [Amos 6:11], altars being cracked [Amos 3:14], and the Temple at Bethel being struck and collapsing [Amos 9:1]. The earthquake was remembered for a long time afterwards [Zechariah 14:5 i.e. 520-518 B.C.].
c. 759 Osorkon III end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 23].
c. 757 Takelot III end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 23].
c. 757 Rudamun start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 23].
755 Hosea begins to prophesy.
755 Assyrian king Ashur – Dan III end of reign.
755 Assyrian king Ashur – nirari V start of reign – son of Adad – nirari [III].
c. 755 Hosea – prophet re. Israel start – 30 years.
754 Romulus founds Rome.
c. 754 Rudamun end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 23].
c. 754 Iuput II start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 23].
753 Jeroboam II – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] end [bad].
753 Zechariah – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] start – 6 months.
753 Amos – prophet re. Israel & Judah end.
753 Zechariah becomes king of Israel [Northern Kingdom].
753 Hosea’s prophecies [Hosea 1 – 14].
752 Zechariah – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] end [bad].
752 Shallum – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] start – 1 month.
752 Shallum – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] end [bad].
752 Menahem * – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] start – 10 years.
752 Pekah * – co-regent king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] start – 20 years.
752 * Pekah began as a ruling rival of Menahem. This rivalry lasted ten years [2 Kings 15:17] until Menahem’s death in 742.
752 Menahem becomes king of Israel [Northern Kingdom].
748 Jotham – co-regent king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] start – 16 years [2 Chronicles 27].
745 Tiglath – Pileser III becomes king of Assyria.
745 Assyrian king Ashur – nirari V end of reign.
745 Assyrian king Tiglath – Pileser III [Pur] start of reign – son of Ashur – nirari [V].
c. 743 Piye [establishes Nubian Dynasty in Egypt] start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 25 [Nubian]].
742 Menahem – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] end [bad].
742 Pekahiah * – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] start – 2 years.
742 * From 742 to 740 Pekah and Pekahiah maintained rival thrones [2 Kings 15:23], with Pekah beginning his sole rule of the Northern kingdom in 740 B.C. with his assassination of Pekahiah.
742 Ahaz’s wicked reign [2 Chronicles 28, 2 Kings 16].
740 Pekahiah * – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] end [bad].
740 Azariah [Uzziah] – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] end [good] Azariah [Uzziah] dies; Isaiah’s vision [Isaiah 6:1], [2 Chronicles 26]. And the LORD smote the king, so that he was a leper unto the day of his death, and dwelt in a several [separate] house. [2 Kings 15:5].
740 Jotham – sole king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] start [2 Chronicles 27].
740 Pekah becomes sole king of Israel [Northern Kingdom].
740 Reuben, Gad, and Manasseh are conquered by Tiglath – Pileser III [Pur] and deported by the Assyrians. And the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, and the spirit of Tilgathpilneser king of Assyria, and he carried them away, even the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh, and brought them unto Halah, and Habor, and Hara, and to the river Gozan, unto this day. [1 Chronicles 5:26]. In the days of Pekah king of Israel came Tiglathpileser king of Assyria, and took Ijon, and Abelbethmaachah, and Janoah, and Kedesh, and Hazor, and Gilead, and Galilee, all the land of Naphtali, and carried them captive to Assyria [2 Kings 15:29].
c. 740 Peftjaubast start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 23].
c. 740 Namlot start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 23].
c. 740 Namlot end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 23].
739 Isaiah complains of Zion’s corruption [Isaiah 1 – 5].
739 Isaiah’s vision and commission [Isaiah 6].
c. 739 Hezekiah born to Ahaz & Abijah [Abi].
737 Micah – prophet re. Judah start – 40 years. Micah was from Moresheth-Gath, in southwest Judah. He prophesied during the reigns of kings Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah of Judah. Micah’s messages were directed chiefly toward Jerusalem. He prophesied the future destruction of Jerusalem and Samaria, the destruction and then future restoration of the Judean state, and he rebuked the people of Judah for dishonesty and idolatry. His prophecy that the Messiah would be born in the town of Bethlehem is cited in the Gospel of Matthew.
737 Assyria conquers Damascus [2Kngs 16:9].
735 Isaiah’s prophesy of Immanuel [Isaiah 7].
734 Uriah and Zechariah [Isaiah 8].
732 Jotham – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] end [good] [2 Chronicles 27].
732 Ahaz – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] start – 16 years. In the seventeenth year of Pekah the son of Remaliah Ahaz the son of Jotham king of Judah began to reign. Twenty years old [was] Ahaz when he began to reign, and reigned sixteen years in Jerusalem, and did not [that which was] right in the sight of the LORD his God, like David his father. [2 Kings 16:1-2].
732 Pekah – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] end [bad]. Pekah’s reign ended when he was assassinated by Hoshea. And Hoshea the son of Elah made a conspiracy against Pekah the son of Remaliah, and smote him, and slew him, and reigned in his stead, in the twentieth year of Jotham the son of Uzziah. [2 Kings 15:30].
732 Hoshea – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] start – 9 years.
730 Isaiah prophesies a Child Is Born [Isaiah 9].
730 Isaiah prophesies judgments Upon Israel [Isaiah 9:8].
730 Isaiah prophesies judgment on Assyria [Isaiah 10].
730 Isaiah prophesies the Root of Jesse [Isaiah 11].
730 Isaiah’s joyful thanksgiving [Isaiah 12].
c. 730 Micah’s Idolatry.
c. 730 Danites settle in Laish, Take Micah’s Idols.
c. 730 Sheshonq V end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 22 [Libyan]].
c. 730 Osorkon IV start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 22 [Libyan]].
727 Babylonia makes itself independent of Assyria.
727 Shalmaneser IV becomes king of Assyria.
727 Assyrian king Tiglath – Pileser III [Pur] [Pur] end of reign.
727 Assyrian king Shalmaneser V start of reign – son of Tiglath – Pileser [III].
725 Isaiah prophesies against the nations [Isaiah 13 – 22].
725 Isaiah’s valley of vision [Isaiah 22].
725 Isaiah’s burden of Tyre [Isaiah 23].
725 Devastation on the earth [Isaiah 24].
725 Isaiah’s songs of praise [Isaiah 25 – 27].
725 Isaiah’s further warnings [Isaiah 28 – 32].
725 Isaiah prophesies a king shall reign [Isaiah 32].
725 Isaiah declares God’s judgments [Isaiah 33, 34].
725 Isaiah declares the joyful will flourish in Zion [Isaiah 35].
725 Hoshea the last king of Israel [2 Kings 17].
c. 725 Hosea – prophet re. Israel end.
c. 725 Peftjaubast end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 23].
724 Siege of Tyre by the Assyrians under Shalmaneser V and Sargon II starts.
c. 724 Tefnakht start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 24].
723 Hoshea – king of Israel [Northern Kingdom] end [bad].
722 Assyrian king Shalmaneser V end of reign.
722 Sargon II becomes king of Assyria.
722 The ruling city of the Northern Kingdom of Israel, Samaria, is finally taken by Sargon II after a three-year siege which started with the Assyrian king Shalmaneser V. The ten tribes of Israel go into captivity. In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes. [2 Kings 17:6].
721 And the king of Assyria brought men from Babylon, and from Cuthah, and from Ava, and from Hamath, and from Sepharvaim, and placed them in the cities of Samaria instead of the children of Israel: and they possessed Samaria, and dwelt in the cities thereof. [2 Kings 17:24].
720 Siege of Tyre [724-720 B.C.] by the Assyrians under Shalmaneser V and Sargon II ends.
c. 720 Thutemhat start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 23].
c. 720 Thutemhat end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 23].
717 Assyrian king Sargon conquers the Hittites stronghold of Carchemish.
c. 717 Tefnakht end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 24].
c. 717 Bakenrenef start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 24].
716 Ahaz – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] end [wicked] [2 Chronicles 28].
716 Hezekiah – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] start – 29 years [2 Chronicles 29].
715 Hezekiah proclaims a solemn Passover [2 Chronicles 30].
715 Idolatry is destroyed [2 Chronicles 31].
712 Hezekiah’s illness and healing [2 Kings 20, Isaiah 38].
c. 712 Osorkon IV end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 22 [Libyan]].
c. 712 Iuput II end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 23].
c. 712 Bakenrenef end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 24].
c. 712 Piye [establishes Nubian Dynasty in Egypt] end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 25 [Nubian]].
c. 712 Shabaqo start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 25 [Nubian]].
711 Hezekiah shows treasures [2 Kings 20:12, Isaiah 39].
711 Isaiah prophesies captivity and restoration Isaiah 40 – 66].
705 Sennacherib succeeds Sargon II as king of Assyria.
705 Assyrian king Sargon II end of reign.
705 Assyrian king Sennacherib start of reign.
704 Sennacherib moves the capital of Assyria to Nineveh.
702 Hezekiah’s prayer [2 Kings 19, Isaiah 37] – granted 15 more years of life..
702 Isaiah dies. Isaiah lived until the fourteenth year of Hezekiah’s reign.
701 Judah invaded by the Assyrians. Siege of Tyre by the Assyrians under Sennacherib.
701 Sennacherib threatens Jerusalem [2 Kings 18, Isaiah 36, 2 Chronicles 32].
701 Korah’s psalms of refuge [2 Chronicles 32, Psalms 46 – 48].
c. 698 Shabaqo end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 25 [Nubian]].
c. 698 Shebitqo start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 25 [Nubian]].
697 Micah – prophet re. Judah end.
697 The vision of Nahum [Nahum 1 – 3].
696 Manasseh – co-regent king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] start – 55 years. Manasseh’s wicked reign [2 Kings 21, 2 Chronicles 33].
c. 690 Shebitqo end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 25 [Nubian]].
c. 690 Taharqo [loses control of Lower Egypt] start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 25 [Nubian]].
688 Nikauba start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 26 [Saite]]
687 Hezekiah – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] end [very good] [2 Chronicles 29 – 32]. Hezekiah [age 51 / 52] dies.
687 Manasseh becomes sole king of Judah [Southern Kingdom].
681 Assyrian king Sennacherib end of reign.
681 Assyrian king Esarhaddon start of reign.
677 Esarhaddon leads the Assyrian army against rebellious Arab tribes, advances as far as the Brook of Egypt.
675 Assyrian king Esarhaddon begins the rebuilding of Babylon.
674 Assyrian king Esarhaddon puts down a revolt in Ashkelon supported by Taharqa, king of Egypt. In response, the Assyrians invade Egypt, but Taharqa is able to hold the invaders off.
672 Nikauba end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 26 [Saite]].
672 Necho I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 26 [Saite]].
671 Assyrian king Esarhadon again invades Egypt, capturing Memphis as well as a number of the royal family.
671 Siege of Tyre by the Assyrians under Esarhaddon.
669 Assyrian king Esarhaddon end of reign.
669 Assyrian king Ashurbanipal start of reign.
668 Egypt revolts against Assyria.
668 Nineveh, capital of Assyria becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Thebes in Egypt.
668 Shamash – shum – ukin, son of Esarhaddon, becomes king of Babylon.
664 Amon born to Manasseh & Meshullemeth [2 Kings 21:18 – 19].
664 Necho I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 26 [Saite]].
664 Psamtik I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 26 [Saite]].
c. 664 Taharqo [loses control of Lower Egypt] end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 25 [Nubian]].
c. 664 Tanutamani [loses control of Upper Egypt] start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 25 [Nubian]].
663 Siege of Tyre by the Assyrians under Ashurbanipal.
662 Manasseh returns to Jerusalem? [2 Chronicles 33:12 – 13].
c. 653 Tanutamani [loses control of Upper Egypt] end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 25 [Nubian]].
652 Babylonia rises in revolt under Shamash – shum – ukin against the Assyrians.
652 Achaemenid dynasty in Persia.
649 Babylonian revolt under Shamash – shum – ukin is crushed by the Assyrians.
648 Josiah born.
648 Nahum – prophet re. Judah. Nahum predicts the fall of Nineveh.
c. 647 Jeremiah born to Hilkiah but not the high priest of 2 Kings 22:8 – descendant of Eli? – line of Abiathor.
642 Manasseh – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] end [very bad] [2 Chronicles 33:1 – 20].
642 Amon [age 22 years – 2 Kings 21:19] – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] start – 2 years.
642 Amon becomes king of Judah [Southern Kingdom].
640 Amon – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] end [very bad] [2 Chronicles 33:21 – 25].
640 Josiah [age 8] [grandson of Manasseh] – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] start – 31 years [2 Chronicles 34:1 – 3]. Josiah’s good reign [2 Kings 22, 2 Chronicles 34].
640 Decisive victory of Assyria over Elamite Empire; Assurbanipal captures its last king Khumma – Khaldash III, annexes Elam, and lays waste the country.
638 The Word of the LORD to Zephaniah [Zephaniah 1 – 3].
634 Zephaniah begins to prophesy.
634 Eliakim [later called Jehoiakim] born to Josiah & Zebidah [2nd son].
c. 634 Nebuchadnezzar II born to Nabopolassar & ?[f]. Nebuchadnezzar was the eldest son and successor of Nabopolassar, founder of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.
c. 631-627 Assyrian king Ashurbanipal end of reign.
c. 631-627 Assyrian king Ashur – etil – ilani start of reign.
c. 630? Habakkuk – prophet re. Judah.
c. 630? Zephaniah – prophet re. Judah.
627 Death of Assurbanipal, king of Assyria; he is succeeded by Assur – etel – ilani [approximate date].
627 Jeremiah – prophet re. Judah start – 47 [67?] years. The call of Jeremiah [Jeremiah 1].
627 Jeremiah declares that Judah forsakes God [Jeremiah 2 – 6].
627 / 626 Start of Jeremiah’s ministry – proclamation of Jeremiah 3:12 – 14 made to the northern tribes [in captivity since 722 B.C.] – last 40 years of Judah – ministry not confined to Jerusalem.
627 / 626 Plot to kill Jeremiah occurs upon his return to Anathoth, so he dwells in Jerusalem.
c. 627 Assyrian king Ashur – etil – ilani end of reign.
c. 627-612 Assyrian king Sin – shar – ishkun start of reign.
626 Jeremiah’s message at the Temple gate [Jeremiah 7 – 10].
626 Nabopolassar revolts against Assyria, founds the Neo – Babylonian Empire.
626 Nabopolasser becomes king of Babylon.
626 Assyrian king Sin – shumu – lishir start of reign.
626 Assyrian king Sin – shumu – lishir end of reign.
625 Medes and Babylonians assert their independence from Assyria and attack Nineveh [approximate date].
622 Text of Deuteronomy found in the Temple in Jerusalem.The Hebrew prophet Ezekiel said to be born this year.
622 Revival in Judah.
622 Jeremiah proclaims God’s Covenant [Jeremiah 11, 12].
621 Josiah prepares for Temple repair [2 Kings 22:3].
621 Hilkiah finds the lost Book of the Law [2 Kings 22:8].
621 Josiah celebrates the Passover [2 Kings 23, 2 Chronicles 35].
619 Habakkuk begins to prophesy [?]
612 The Medes come to prominence when they join with the Babylonians in overthrowing Assyria. Little is known about them, but they were possibly a significant power in the Middle East for several decades thereafter.
612 Nineveh, capital of [Asshur] [As]syria falls to the Medes, Babylonians, and Scythians who also subdue proud Egyptians. Supported by the Egyptians, an Assyrian general continued to rule for a few years from Harran.
612 Babylon, capital of Babylonia becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Nineveh, capital of [Asshur] Assyria.
612 Assyrian king Sin – shar – ishkun end of reign.
612 Assyrian general Ashur – uballit II – start of rule from Harran.
610 Psamtik I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 26 [Saite]].
610 Necho II start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 26 [Saite]].
609 Cyaxares of Media and Nabopolassar of Babylonia defeat the Assyrian army of Ashur – uballit II and capture Harran.
609 Assyrian general Ashur – uballit II – end of rule.
609 Jeremiah proclaims Covenant is broken [Jeremiah 13 – 20].
609 Jeremiah prophesies against Egypt [Jeremiah 46].
609 Jeremiah prophesies against Philistia [Jeremiah 47].
608 king Josiah of Judah dies in the Battle of Megiddo against Pharaoh Necho II of Egypt, who is on his way north to aid the rump Assyrian state of Ashur – uballit II. [2 Chronicles 35:1 – 4].
608 Josiah – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] end [very good] [2 Chronicles 34 – 35].
608 Jehoahaz succeeds his father Josiah as king of Judah [Southern Kingdom], but is quickly deposed by Necho, who installs Jehoahaz’s brother Jehoiakim in his place.
608 Jehoahaz [Shallum] – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] start – 3 months [2 Kings 23:29 – 31].
608 Jehoahaz [Shallum] – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] end [bad] [2 Chronicles 36:1 – 4].
608 Jehoiakim [Eliakim] – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] start – 11 years. And Pharaoh Nechoh made Eliakim the son of Josiah king in the room of Josiah his father, and turned his name to Jehoiakim, and took Jehoahaz away: and he came to Egypt, and died there [2 Kings 23:34]. Jehoiakim’s wicked reign [2 Chronicles 36]. Jehoiakim was appointed king by Necho II, king of Egypt, in 608 B.C., after Necho’s return from the battle in Haran, three months after he had killed King Josiah at Megiddo.
606 In Jehoiakim’s [Eliakim’s] 3rd year and Nebuchadnezzar’s ascension year [Daniel 1:1 – 4], 1st deportation of Jews taken captive to Babylon; includes Daniel. Start of 70 YEARS OF CAPTIVITY – God went with them [Ezekiel 11:16 – 21].
606 3rd Year of the rule of Jehoiakim. Daniel begins to prophesy.
606? Jeremiah enacts parable [Jeremiah 19:1 – 10] for elders / priests.
605 22 years after prophetic appointment to office, God commissions Jeremiah to write His message in a scroll.
605? May – June Egyptians are defeated by the Babylonians at the battle of Carchemish.
605? June – August Fall of Jerusalem to Nebuchadnezzar. Daniel and his companions are taken captive.
605 September 7 Nebuchadnezzar II king of Babylon [until 562 B.C. – 43 years]. Nebuchadnezzar II succeeds his father Nabopolassar, who dies, as king of Babylon.
605- 603 Daniel refuses the king’s portion [Daniel 1].
605 / 604 1st Year of Daniel’s Training.
604? Scroll read in temple on a fast day [Jeremiah 36:5 – 8], later read by Jehudi [Jeremiah 36:20 – 23] where Jehoiakim cuts scroll with a penknife and burns pieces.
604? God commissions Jeremiah to write a new scroll – Jeremiah provides in more detail than first scroll.
c. 604 The burden which Habakkuk the prophet did see[Habakkuk 1:1]. [Habakkuk 1 – 3].
604 / 603 2nd Year of Daniel’s Training.
603 / 602 Daniel interprets Nebuchadnezzar dream [Daniel 2].
603 / 602 3rd Year of Daniel’s Training.
602 – 582 Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego [Daniel 3].
601 The Medes from Media [western Iran] and the Scythians from modern Russia and Ukraine invade the northern and eastern parts of Assyria.
601 Revolt of Jehoiakim [2 Kings 24].
600 Nebuchadnezzar builds the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.
600 Smyrna sacked and destroyed.
600 – 598 Cyrus II the Great born to Cambyses I & Mandane of Media.
597 Jehoiakim [Eliakim] – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] end [wicked] [2 Chronicles 36:5 – 8].
597 Jehoiachin [Jeconiah] [Coniah] – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] start – exiled after 3 months [2 Kings 24:10].
597 Jehoiachin [Jeconiah] [Coniah] – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] end [bad] [2 Chronicles 36:8 – 10].
597 March 16 Jerusalem falls at the hands of Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. The 2nd group of captives are taken to Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar captures Jehoiachin [Jeconiah] [Coniah] and takes him as prisoner to Babylon. Zedekiah is set up as a puppet king over Judah; he is indecisive, moral weakling who is dominated by rebellious princes [Jeremiah 38:5; 5T297].
597 Zedekiah – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] start – 11 years. [2 Kings 24:17 – 18].
595 Necho II end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 26 [Saite]].
595 Psamtik II start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 26 [Saite]].
594 Jeremiah prophesies against Moab [Jeremiah 48].
594 Jeremiah prophesies against Ammon [Jeremiah 49].
593 Ezekiel begins to prophesy.
593 Ezekiel’s prophecy at Chebar [Ezekiel 1].
593 Ezekiel’s calling and instruction [Ezekiel 2].
593 Ezekiel eats the scroll [Ezekiel 3].
593 Ezekiel foretells siege of Jerusalem [Ezekiel 4, 5].
593 Ezekiel’s vision of the end [Ezekiel 6, 7].
593 / 592 Ezekiel – prophet re. Judah start – 22 years.
592 Ezekiel’s 1st Temple vision [Ezekiel 8 – 19].
591 Ezekiel sees God refuse the elders [Ezekiel 20].
591 Ezekiel prophesies against Jerusalem [Ezekiel 21, 22].
591 Ezekiel prophesies against 2 sisters [Ezekiel 23].
c. 589 Nabonidus’ has son Belshazzar, whose mother is either wife or daughter of Nebuchadnezzar [possibly Nitocris of Babylon].
589 Psamtik II end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 26 [Saite]].
589 Apries start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 26 [Saite]].
588 January 27 Babylonian invasion. Beginning of final siege of Jerusalem [2 Kings 25:1, Ezekiel 24:1-2]. Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon begins siege of Jerusalem [2 Kings 25, Ezekiel 24]. Prophesy fulfilment: And Isaiah said unto Hezekiah, Hear the word of the Lord. Behold, the days come, that all that is in thine house, and that which thy fathers have laid up in store unto this day, shall be carried into Babylon: nothing shall be left, saith the Lord. And of thy sons that shall issue from thee, which thou shalt beget, shall they take away; and they shall be eunuchs in the palace of the king of Babylon. [2 Kings 20:16-18]. And the Lord said, I will remove Judah also out of my sight, as I have removed Israel, and will cast off this city Jerusalem which I have chosen, and the house of which I said, My name shall be there. [2 Kings 23:27].
588 Jeremiah’s conflicts [Jeremiah 21 – 33].
587 September 29 Release of Hebrew slaves at beginning of a Sabbatical year [Jeremiah 34: 8-10].
587 Jeremiah prophesies judgment on Judah [Jeremiah 34 – 45].
587 October – 586 April Babylonians temporarily lift siege due to approach of Egyptian army. Slaves taken back. Jeremiah arrested as he attempts to go to Anathoth; he is imprisoned for about a year. [Jeremiah 34:11-22, 37:5-16].
587 God’s vengeance on Ammon and Edom [Ezekiel 25].
586 April 29 Egyptians defeated. Siege resumes [Jeremiah 34:22, Ezekiel 30:20-21].
586 July 29 Wall breached. Zedekiah captured [2 Kings 25:2-4; Jeremiah 39:2, 52:7; Ezekiel 33:21, 40:1].
586 August 25 Nebuzaradan arrives at Jerusalem from Riblah in Hamath and begins consultation with commanders in the field regarding the pillaging of Jerusalem [2 Kings 25:8]. Nebuzaradan was the commander of Nebuchadnezzar’s guard who was in charge of the destruction of the Temple and the deportation of the people of Judah.
586 Nebuchadnezzar lays siege to Jerusalem. The Babylonians destroy Jerusalem and the 1st Temple. The destruction of the temple starts on the 9th of Ab [Hebrew month] and completes on the 10th. [The 9th of Ab will also be the day Jerusalem’s SECOND temple [Herod’s temple] will be completely destroyed in 70 A.D.].
586 August 28 The fall of Jerusalem [2 Kings 25; Jeremiah 52]. Nebuzaradan leads forces into Jerusalem to pillage, destroy, and burn the city and its temple [2 Kings 25:9-19; 2 Chronicles 36:18-19; Jeremiah 52:12-25].
586 Zedekiah – king of Judah [Southern Kingdom] end [bad] [2 Chronicles 36].
586 Jeremiah freed from prison by Nebuchadnezzar – rather than go to Babylon he chooses to remain with the remnant in Palestine at Mispah under the appointed governor, Gedaliah.
586 End of the Southern Kingdom of Judah. The conquerors exile the land’s remaining inhabitants. The 3rd group of captives taken to Babylon. Babylonian Captivity for the Jews begins.
586 Lamentations written by Jeremiah. The rabbis pre-empt the priests as the chief custodians of divine truth.
586 Gedaliah becomes governor of Jerusalem. Ishmael, and the ten men who were with him, murder Gedaliah, together with most of the Jews who had joined him and many Babylonians whom Nebuchadnezzar had left with Gedaliah [Jeremiah 41:2-3] The remnant of the Jews under Johanan flee to Egypt taking Jeremiah and Baruch to Tahpanhes.
586 Jeremiah prophesies against Babylon [Jeremiah 50, 51].
586 Psalms of desolation [Jeremiah 52, Psalms 74, 79].
586 Jeremiah’s lamentations [Lamentations 1 – 5].
586 Ezekiel pronounces judgement on Tyre [Ezekiel 26 – 28].
586 Siege of Tyre by the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar II starts. [Ezekiel 26:7 – 14].
586 Ezekiel prophesies against Egypt [Ezekiel 29 – 32].
586 Ezekiel the watchman [Ezekiel 33].
c. 586 Obadiah – prophet re. Judah.
585 Ezekiel explains Jerusalem’s fall [Ezekiel 33:21].
585 Ezekiel foresees reproof and restoration [Ezekiel 34 – 36].
585 Ezekiel sees resurrection of dry bones [Ezekiel 37].
585 Ezekiel sees future battle [Ezekiel 38].
585 Ezekiel sees God’s judgment upon Gog [Ezekiel 39].
582 Nebuchadnezzar’s dream [Daniel 4].
582 Daniel interprets Nebuchadnezzar’s dream [Daniel 4:19].
580 Cambyses I succeeds Cyrus I as king of Anshan and head of the Achaemenid dynasty [approximate date].
573 Ezekiel’s 2nd Temple vision [Ezekiel 40 – 48].
573 Siege of Tyre by the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar II ends.
571? Darius the Mede born to ? & ?[f.].
570 End of the Babylonian siege against the city of Tyre with a partial victory by the Babylonians. It was the longest siege of the city in history, lasting 13 years.
570 Pharaoh Hophra [Apries] deposed [Jeremiah 44:30].
570 Apries end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 26 [Saite]].
570 Amasis start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 26 [Saite]].
c. 570 Ezekiel – prophet re. Judah end.
c. 570 Jeremiah – prophet re. Judah end.
563 Buddhism founded by Siddhartha.
562 Nebuchadnezzar II [age 71 / 72] dies. Evil-Merodach [Amel-Marduk], son of Nebuchadnezzar, assumes throne.
560 Murder of Evil-Merodach. Neriglissar [Nergal-shar-usur], son-in-law of Nebuchadnezzar, assumes throne.
559 king Cambyses I of Anshan dies and is succeeded by his son Cyrus II the Great.
559 Cyrus II [the Great] becomes king of Persia. He succeeds his father as ruler of a small vassal kingdom in modern eastern Iran. The Persian Empire is formed under Cyrus II [the Great].
556 Neriglissar dies naturally.
556 Laborosoarchad [Labashi-Marduk] succeeds Neriglissar as king of Babylon.
556 Laborosoarchad [Labashi-Marduk], grandson of Nebuchadnezzar, assumes throne.
556 Laborosoarchad [Labashi-Marduk] is assassinated.
556 Nabonidus succeeds Laborosoarchad [Labashi-Marduk] as king of Babylon. Nabonidus, son of the Assyrian priestess Adda-Guppi, comes to the throne as king of Babylon, after overthrowing the young king Laborosoarchad [Labashi-Marduk]. For long periods he entrusts rule to his son, prince and co-regent Belshazzar, who was a capable soldier, but a poor politician. All of this left him somewhat unpopular with many of his subjects, particularly the priesthood and the military class.
550 Belshazzar becomes co-regent in Babylon. Through the folly and weakness of Belshazzar, the grandson of Nebuchadnezzar, proud Babylon was soon to fall. Admitted in his youth to a share in kingly authority, Belshazzar gloried in his power and lifted up his heart against the God of heaven [Prophets and Kings 522.2].
550 Belshazzar is co-regent of Babylon, governing the country after his father, king Nabonidus, went into exile in 550 B.C..
550 Darius I born to Hystaspes and Rhodugune. Hystaspes was a leading figure of authority in Persia and a governor of Bactria in 522 B.C..
550 The temple of Artemis is erected at Ephesus.
550 Cyrus II the Great overthrows Astyages of the Medes, establishing the Persian Empire.
549 Cyrus II [the Great] becomes king of Media.
547 Cyrus II [the Great] becomes king of Lydia.
547 Croesus, Lydian King, is defeated by Cyrus of Persia near the River Halys.
546 Cyrus of Persia completes his conquest of Lydia, and makes Pasargadae his capital.
540 Cyrus II the Great now rules the Persian Empire stretching from the Mediterranean to Central Asia.
c. 540 Persians conquer Lycian city of Xanthos, now in southern Turkey.
539 Jewish exiles suddenly able to prepare for return to Judah – approx. 1 year preparation.
539 Babylon is conquered by Cyrus the Great, defeating Nabonidus, the king of Babylon. Cyrus the Great invasion of Babylonia turns it into a colony of Achaemenid Persia. Cyrus then claims to be the legitimate successor of the ancient Babylonian kings.
539 Belshazzar, aged 62 years and king of the Chaldeans is slain. Belshazzar dies after Babylon falls to the Persians and Medes.
539 For a little while, Darius the Mede [age 32?] rules in Babylon. Darius the Mede is mentioned in the Book of Daniel as king of Babylon between Belshazzar and Cyrus the Great, but he is not known to history, and no additional king can be placed between the known figures of Belshazzar and Cyrus. However, Babylon was besieged by Cyrus, nephew of Darius the Mede, and commanding general of the combined armies of the Medes and Persians [Prophets and Kings 523.1]. [Most scholars view him as a literary fiction, but conservatives seeking to harmonise Daniel with history have put forward several theories, the most common being that he is identical with either Cyrus or with Ugbaru, the general who was first to enter Babylon when it fell to the Persians].
539 With Babylon falling to the Medes and Persians, Cyrus becomes king of Babylon. The history of post exilic Jewry begins.
539 Ascension of Darius the Mede to the former throne of Babylon prompted Daniel to restudy Jeremiah’s prophecies.
539 Daniel interprets handwriting on the wall [Daniel 5].
539 Daniel survives the lions’ den [Daniel 6]. Cyrus, tricked by Daniel’s enemies, issued a decree to worship the king – Daniel saved by Jesus from the lion’s den – Daniel 6:4-27.
539 Daniel’s vision of 4 beasts [Daniel 7].
539 Daniel’s vision of the ram and goat [Daniel 8].
539 Daniel’s prayer and Gabriel’s answer [Daniel 9].
539 Daniel comforted by the angel [Daniel 10].
539 Daniel prophesies overthrow of Persia [Daniel 11].
539 Daniel prophesies deliverance for Israel [Daniel 12].
538 Zerubbabel [the grandson of Jeconiah] and Joshua [who was appointed as high priest] lead a small party of Jewish repatriates back to Palestine. Return of some Jews from Babylonian exile who later in 520 B.C. – 516 B.C. build the Second Temple [about 70 years after the destruction of the First Temple]. The Jews return to the land of Israel from the Babylonian exile following the decree by the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great [the conqueror of the Babylonian empire in 539 B.C.].
537? The proclamation of Cyrus [Ezra 1]. 1st decree by Cyrus to rebuild the temple [Ezra 1:1 – 4].
536 End of 70 YEARS OF CAPTIVITY. Spring – Zerubbabel [Sheshbazzar] – descendant of Judah’s last king – led initial migration back home – only about 50,000 Jews returned from Babylon to Judah – 4 months journey [Ezra 2:64 – 67]. Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to Jerusalem, bringing to a close the Babylonian captivity.
536 Altar built by Zerubbabel for burnt [i.e. worship, gratitude, dedication] offerings. Jews scattered to their ancestral cities [Ezra 2:70].
536 Temple building in Jerusalem begins [Ezra 2 & 3]. Samaritan offer for help rejected.
536 False reports by Samaritans sent to the court of Persia. 3rd year of Cyrus – Daniel’s glorious vision following 3 weeks of mourning [Daniel 10]. Supernatural powers locked in combat as they seek to influence Cyrus during these 21 days – fate of Judah hung in balance as Daniel prayed for Israel’s deliverance from Samaritan opposition [Daniel 10:12&13].
536 Daniel – prophet re. Judah end.
534 Adversaries hinder Temple work [Ezra 4].
534 Artaxerxes orders Temple work to stop [Ezra 4:17-23]. Then ceased the work of the house of God which is at Jerusalem. So it ceased unto the second year of the reign of Darius king of Persia [Ezra 4:24].
530 Cambyses II co-regent with Cyrus as king of Persia just before his death.
530 December 4 Cyrus dies [age 68 – 70] while campaigning against unruly eastern tribes. Cambyses his eldest son becomes sole king. Greatest achievement during the next 8 years is the conquest of Egypt.
c. 529 Cambyses II marries his sisters to preclude any rival claim to the throne via their subsequent marriage.
526 Amasis end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 26 [Saite]].
526 Psamtik III start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 26 [Saite]].
525 Beginning of conquest of Egypt by Cambyses II.
525 Psamtik III end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 26 [Saite]].
525 According to Darius the Great, Cambyses II, after becoming king of Persia but before setting out for Egypt, kills Bardia [Bardiya] Smerdis and keeps this a secret from the people. Bardiya was the younger son of Cyrus the Great and a full or half-brother of Cambyses II. On his deathbed Cyrus had appointed Bardia [Bardiya] [Smerdis] as satrap (governor) of some of the far-eastern provinces.
525 Cambyses II, ruler of Persia, conquers Egypt, defeating Psammetichus III. This is considered the end of the 26th Dynasty, and the start of the 27th Dynasty.
525 Cambyses II start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 27 [Persian]].
522 Cambyses II end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 27 [Persian]].
522 Pedubaste III start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 28].
522 March The false Smerdis [Smerdis the usurper] start of reign as ruler of Persia for 6-7 months.
522 Jewish setback for over a year as temple building is stopped. The Samaritans tried to hinder this work. By their false reports they aroused suspicion in minds easily stirred up to suspect; and because of this discouragement, the Jews became unbelieving and indifferent in regard to the work that the Lord had signified He would have done. They were opposed by Smerdis the usurper. “Then ceased the work of the house of God which is at Jerusalem. So it ceased until the second year of the reign of Darius king of Persia.” When Darius came to the throne, he set aside the work and prohibition of the usurper. But even then the people that should have been the most interested continued to be indifferent. They misapplied the prophecy given by Inspiration. They misinterpreted the Word of God, and declared that the time to build had not yet come, and that until the days were fully accomplished, they would not undertake the work. But while they left the building of the house of the Lord, the temple in which they could worship God, until the end of the time specified as the captivity of the Jews had fully come, they built mansions for themselves [Manuscript 116, 1897]. [4 Bible Commentary 1175.8].
522 The false Smerdis [Smerdis the usurper] dies as Babylon rebel against Persian rule.
522 September Darius I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 27 [Persian]]. Darius I succeeds Bardia [Bardiya] Smerdis as ruler of Persia. Darius I was also called Darius the Great, he ruled the Persian Empire when it was at its peak.
521 The Babylonian rebellion against Persian rule is suppressed.
520 In 2nd year of Darius, Haggai and Zechariah prophesied to the Jews, Zerubbabel rose up [Ezra 5:1-2].
520 August 29 Haggai – prophet re. Judah begins to prophesy. In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month, in the first day of the month, came the word of the LORD by Haggai the prophet unto Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and to Joshua the son of Josedech, the high priest, [Haggai 1:1].
520 Zechariah – prophet re. Judah begins to prophesy – 2 years. Zechariah was probably a priest as well as a prophet which would explain his focus on Temple matters; also Iddo was one of his ancestors [Ezra 5:1].
520 September 21 Zerubbabel starts rebuilding the temple [Ezra 5:2[. And the LORD stirred up the spirit of Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and the spirit of Joshua the son of Josedech, the high priest, and the spirit of all the remnant of the people; and they came and did work in the house of the LORD of hosts, their God, In the four and twentieth day of the sixth month, in the second year of Darius the king. [Haggai 1:14-15].
520 Tattenai’s letter to Darius [Ezra 5].
520 Construction of the Jerusalem Temple resumed by Darius’ decree [Ezra 6]. 2nd decree by Darius I – Tatnai given powers of authorisation by Darius I to finance the building [Ezra 6:1-12].
520 Pedubaste III end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 28].
518 Zechariah – prophet re. Judah – end.
516 Darius embarks upon a campaign to Central Asia, Aria and Bactria and then marches into Afghanistan to Taxila in modern-day Pakistan.
515 March 12 Construction is completed on the Temple in Jerusalem after 21 years. And this house was finished on the third day of the month Adar, which was in the sixth year of the reign of Darius the king [Ezra 6:15]. Rebuilding and dedication of the Temple after approx. 4.5 years. 5 centuries earlier the previous Temple had taken 7 years [1 Kings 6:37-38].
515 Darius conquers the lands surrounding the river Indus.
515 Start of time of unrest [to 494 B.C.] as Darius invades Greece – disastrous campaigns – also Egypt [and elsewhere] – rebellions.
513 Darius the Great subdues the Getae and east Thrace in his war against the Scythians.
509 Establishment of the Roman Republic. Rome throws out her kings – the Roman Republic is founded. The Etruscan Tarquinius Superbus, last king of Rome, is run out of the city as the Republic is established.
500 Darius I of Persia proclaims that Aramaic be the official language of the western half of his empire.
498 Persian invasion of Greece. Greco-Persian Wars start and continue for 50 years.
497 Darius I links the Red Sea to the river Nile by building a canal; he travels to Egypt for it’s opening.
496 Alexander I reign start – king of Macedon [Macedonia].
494 End of time of unrest as Darius invaded Greece – disastrous campaigns – also Egypt [and elsewhere] – rebellions.
494 Ionic revolt ended by naval victory at Lade.
494 The year Rome changed from an Aristocratic Republic to a Liberalized Republic.
492 1st attack of Athens fails.
492 First expedition of king Darius I of Persia against Greece, under the leadership of his son-in-law Mardonius. This marks the start of the campaign that culminated in the Battle of Marathon in 490 B.C..
490 Battle of Marathon in Greece. The battle was the culmination of the first attempt by Persia, under king Darius I, to subjugate Greece. The Greek army decisively defeated the more numerous Persians, marking a turning point in the Greco-Persian Wars.
486 October Darius I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 27 [Persian]]. Darius I dies [age 64].
486 Egypt revolts against Persian rule upon the death of king Darius I. The revolts, probably led by Libyans of the western Delta, are crushed the next year by Xerxes, who reduces Egypt to the status of a conquered province.
486 Xerxes I [Ahasuerus] start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 27 [Persian]]. Xerxes was the eldest son of Darius and Atossa.
485 Re-conquest of Egypt by Xerxes I [Ahasuerus].
484 Xerxes I [Ahasuerus] abolishes the Kingdom of Babel and removes the golden statue of Bel [Marduk, Merodach].
484 Persians regain control of Egypt.
484 Herodotus the historian born.
484 Decree made by Xerxes I [Ahasuerus] against Queen Vashti [f.] for her refusal to obey her king / husband [Esther 1]. Queen Amestris was deposed in 484 B.C.. The Greek historians called her Amestris, but this is believed to be Queen Vashti in the book of Esther. She returned as Queen mother during her son’s reign Artaxerxes I, and died in 424 B.C..
483 Xerxes I [Ahasuerus] of Persia starts planning his expedition against Greece.
482 Babylon rebels; city destroyed.
480 Athens taken, defeat at Salamis [Greece].
480 king Xerxes I [Ahasuerus] of Persia sets out to conquer Greece.
480 The Greeks defeat Xerxes I [Ahasuerus] at Salamis.
479 The Greeks defeat Xerxes I [Ahasuerus] at Thermopylae.
479 / 478 Esther [f.] chosen as queen [Esther 2:16]. Esther becomes queen of Persia [Esther 2].
478 Mordecai thwarts a conspiracy [Esther 2:21].
474 Haman seeks to destroy all the Jews that were throughout the whole kingdom of Ahasuerus, even the people of Mordecai [Esther 3]. The planned destruction of the Jews turns into victory [Esther 3:7 – 13, 9:1 – 15].
473 Mordecai informs Esther of Haman’s plot [Esther 4].
473 Esther prepares a banquet [Esther 5].
473 The king honours Mordecai [Esther 6].
473 Haman Is hanged [Esther 7].
473 Xerxes I’ [Ahasuerus’] edict on behalf of Esther and Jews [Esther 8].
472 Purim instituted [Esther 9]. Purim being a lesser Jewish festival held in spring to commemorate the defeat of Haman’s plot to massacre the Jews as recorded in the book of Esther.
472 Xerxes I’ tribute to Mordecai [Esther 10].
c. 470 Psamtik IV start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 28].
c. 470 Psamtik IV end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 28].
470 / 469 Socrates born to Sophroniscus, an Athenian stone mason and sculptor, and Phaenarete, a midwife. Socrates was a Greek philosopher and is considered the father of western philosophy. Plato was his most famous student and would teach Aristotle who would then tutor Alexander the Great. By this progression, Greek philosophy, as first developed by Socrates, was spread throughout the known world during Alexander’s conquests.
466 Disastrous defeat on river Eurymedon in Pamphylia – Persian army, navy and 80 auxiliary ships destroyed.
466 Xerxes I [Ahasuerus] end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 27 [Persian]]. king Xerxes I [Ahasuerus] of the Persian Empire is murdered by Artabanus the Hyrcanian. He is succeeded by Artaxerxes I, possibly with Artabanus acting as Regent.
464 Artaxerxes I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 27 [Persian]]. Artaxerxes I Longimanus becomes king of Persia.
463 Revolt in Egypt led by Libyan ruler Inarus – son of Pasmtik.
463 / 454 Ezra received major concessions for the Jews during a serious rebellion in Egypt – concessions were related to political motives.
460 Egypt revolts against Persia, starting a six – year war. An Athenian force sent to attack Cyprus is diverted to support this revolt.
c. 460 Inaros start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 28].
c. 460 Inaros end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 28].
c. 460 Amyrtaios I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 28].
c. 460 Amyrtaios I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 28].
458 Ezra leads the second body of Jews from Babylon to Jerusalem. Ezra takes a small contingent of Jews back to Palestine. [Ezra 7].
458 Ezra commissioned by Artaxerxes [Ezra 7:11].
457 Ezra’s migration began following discussions as no Levites would leave Babylon. Season of fasting and prayer for God’s protection [Ezra 8:21 – 23].
457 Families return to Jerusalem with Ezra [Ezra 8]. Ezra’s migration ended.
457 Autumn 7th year of Artaxerxes [Ezra 7:11 – 26] – 3rd decree by Artaxerxes and his 7 counsellors to Ezra to organise the nation along the lines of the Mosaic code – establishment of Judah as a viable, subject nation. The only decree of 4 which truly restored the autonomy of the Jewish nation as a functioning state under Persian lordship.
457 Start of the 69 weeks being to 27 A.D. when Christ was baptised and 70 weeks – to 34 A.D. when Stephen was stoned. Also start of the 2300 day investigative judgement prophecy that ended 22 October 1844. [457 + 490 = 34 A.D.; 2300 – 490 = 1810; 34 + 1810 = 1844].
457 / 456 Reform concerning strange wives [Ezra 7:7 – 9, 10:9].
457 Decree of Artaxerxes I to re – establish the city government of Jerusalem. [See Ezra 7, Daniel 9 and Nehemiah 1].
457 Ezra’s reforms [Ezra 9].
456 Megabyzos [Artaxerxes brother in law] led Persian army into Egypt.
456 Ezra’s prayer about intermarriage [Ezra 10].
456 / 454 Egyptian revolt quenched by Megabyzos.
454 Alexander I reign end – king of Macedon [Macedonia].
454 Perdikkas II reign start – king of Macedon [Macedonia].
454 Egypt restored in 2 years to Persian authority.
c. 450 / 448 Revolt of Megabyzos against the king of Persia – a few years.
449 Defeat of Persians at Salamis [Cyprus].
448 Greco-Persian Wars end after 50 years.
447 The building of the Parthenon commenced.
447 / 446? Enemies partly destroy Jerusalem’s wall [Nehemiah 1:1 – 3].
445 Nehemiah appointed as governor of Judah by Artaxerxes I.
445 December? Nehemiah received news about conditions in city – from Hanani’s report – Artaxerxes acted to crush by ‘force and power’ [Ezra 4:23]. At least a portion of the preceding 12 years had been devoted to rebuilding the walls and gates of Jerusalem from hostile neighbours [Ezra 4:7,12,13 & 16].
445 Artaxerxes I gives Nehemiah permission to rebuild Jerusalem.
445 Nehemiah takes a small contingent of Jews back to Palestine upon Artaxerxes’ decree [Nehemiah 2:1 – 8 & Daniel 9:24 – 27].
445 Nehemiah’s prayer for the exiles [Nehemiah 1].
c. 445 Thannyros start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 28].
c. 445 Thannyros end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 28].
c. 445 Pausiris start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 28].
c. 445 Pausiris end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 28].
c. 445 Psamtik V start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 28].
c. 445 Psamtik V end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 28].
444 Nehemiah appointed governor of Judah – decree to restore recently burned gates and partially destroyed walls of Jerusalem [Nehemiah 2:3 – 5; 6:15].
444 Artaxerxes sends Nehemiah to Jerusalem [Nehemiah 2].
444 Builders of the walls named [Nehemiah 3].
444 Builders overcome ridicule [Nehemiah 4].
444 Nehemiah abolishes debt and bondage [Nehemiah 5].
444 Sanballat’s plot [Nehemiah 6].
444 Completion of the wall [Nehemiah 6:15].
444 Census of returned exiles [Nehemiah 7].
444 Ezra reads the Law [Nehemiah 8].
444 Israelites fast and repent [Nehemiah 9].
444 Israelites seal the Covenant [Nehemiah 10].
444 People settle in Jerusalem [Nehemiah 11,12].
443 Nehemiah and Ezra read the Scriptures to the Jews and help them understand them.
c. 435 Malachi – prophet re. Judah. Malachi begins to prophesy
432 Nehemiah’s 1st term as governor ends [Nehemiah 5:14].
432 Nehemiah restores Laws [Nehemiah 13].
432-425 Nehemiah away from Judah – Jews again take foreign wives [Nehemiah 13:23 – 29].
428 / 427 Plato is born.
425? Nehemiah’s 2nd term as governor begins [Nehemiah 13:6 & 7].
424 Queen Vashti [Amestris] dies.
424 Artaxerxes I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 27 [Persian]].
424 Darius II start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 27 [Persian]].
423 February? Reign of Artaxerxes ends; [Ochus] Darius II became king following death of Xerxes II by assassin Secydianus who also reigned.
413 Perdikkas II reign end – king of Macedon [Macedonia].
413 Archelaos I reign start – king of Macedon [Macedonia].
408 The Persian king, Darius II, decides to aid Sparta in the war and makes his son Cyrus a satrap. However, Cyrus starts collecting an army to benefit his own interests, rather than his father’s.
405 / 404 Death of Darius II – eldest son Artaxerxes II reigns.
404 Egypt rebels against Persian rule.
404 Artaxerxes II becomes king of Persia.
404 Darius II end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 27 [Persian]].
404 Amyrtaios II start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 28].
401 Cyrus the Younger rebels against the Persian king Artaxerxes II but is, however, eventually slain in battle.
400 After Cyrus has been killed, his Greek mercenaries make their way back to Greece, where Sparta is so impressed with their feats in and march through Persia that they declare war on the Persians.
400 The Egyptians successfully revolt against Persian rule.
400 The Midrash begins to develop.
c. 400 Joel – prophet re. Judah. Possibly 400-350 B.C..
c. 400 Book of Ezra written in Hebrew except for 4:8 – 6:18 & 7:12 – 26 which was in Arabic.
c. 400 Psamtik VI start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 28].
c. 400 Psamtik VI end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 28].
399 End of OLD TESTAMENT Scriptures. Intertestamental Period begins.
399 Socrates [age 70 / 71] is condemned to death and dies by drinking a poison.
399 Archelaos I reign end – king of Macedon [Macedonia].
399 Amyrtaios II end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 28].
399 Nepherites I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 29].
398 Aeropos II reign start – king of Macedon [Macedonia].
397 Antipater born to Iollas & ?[f.].
395 Aeropos II reign end – king of Macedon [Macedonia].
395 Amyntas II reign start – king of Macedon [Macedonia].
394 Amyntas II reign end – king of Macedon [Macedonia].
393 Amyntas III reign start – king of Macedon [Macedonia].
393 Nepherites I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 29].
393 Psammuthis start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 29].
393 Psammuthis end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 29].
393 Achoris start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 29].
390 Gauls under Brennus sack Rome.
386 Sparta signs treaty with Persia.
384 Aristotle born to Nicomachus & Phaestis.
382 Antigonus I Monophthalmus born to Philip [the son of Machatas?] & ?[f.].
380 Last Egyptian Dynasty [to 343].
380 Achoris end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 29].
380 Nepherites II start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 29].
380 Nepherites II end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 29].
380 Nectanebo I start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 30].
c. 380 Darius III [originally named Artashata and called Codomannus by the Greeks] born to Arsames of Ostanes & Sisygambis.
378 Start of the Theban-Spartan War of 378-362 B.C. which was a series of military conflicts fought between Sparta and Thebes for hegemony over Greece.
371 Athenian League and Sparta make peace.
370 Amyntas III reign end – king of Macedon [Macedonia].
365 Perdiccas III reign start – king of Macedon [Macedonia].
365 Teos start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 30].
362 Nectanebo I end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 30].
362 End of the Theban-Spartan War of 378-362 B.C. which was a series of military conflicts fought between Sparta and Thebes for hegemony over Greece.
360 Teos end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 30].
360 Nectanebo II start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 30].
359 Perdiccas III reign end – king of Macedon [Macedonia].
359 Artaxerxes III becomes king of Persia.
359 Philip II reign start – king of Macedon [Macedonia]. The Grecian, or Macedonian Empire, rises up by conquering the existing Persian Empire.
356 July 20 / 21 Alexander III of Macedon, commonly known as Alexander the Great, born in Pella to Philip II & Olympias. Olympias was a daughter of king Neoptolemus I of Epirus, the 4th wife of the king of Macedonia, Philip II.
348 / 347 Plato dies [age 80]. He was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
343 Shortly after Plato dies, Aristotle [age 41] leaves Athens and, at the request of Philip II of Macedon, tutors Alexander the Great [age 13].
343 Artaxerxes III of Persia captures Egypt.
343 Nectanebo II end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 30].
343 Persians start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 30].
343 Khabebesh start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 30].
343 Artaxerxes III Ochus start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 30].
342 Antipater is appointed by Philip II to govern Macedon as his regent while the former left for three years of hard and successful campaigning against Thracian and Scythian tribes.
c. 340 Roxana, a Sogdian princess of Bactria and the future wife of the Greek Macedonian king, Alexander the Great, is born.
340 End of Aristotle’s tuition with Alexander the Great [age 16].
338 The Battle of Chaeronea was fought near the city of Chaeronea in Boeotia, between the Macedonians led by Philip II of Macedon and an alliance of some of the Greek city-states including Athens and Thebes. The battle was the culmination of Philip’s campaign in Greece [339-338 B.C.] and resulted in a decisive victory for the Macedonians.
338 Artaxerxes III assassinated in Persia.
338 Artaxerxes III Ochus end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 30].
338 Artaxerxes IV Arses start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 30].
336 Philip II reign end – king of Macedon [Macedonia].
336 Alexander the Great [age 20] becomes king of Greece after Philip’s assassination in 336 B.C., he succeeded his father to the throne and inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army [Macedonian Period]. He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history’s most successful military commanders.
336 Alexander III (the Great) reign start – king of Macedon [Macedonia].
336 Artaxerxes IV Arses end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 30].
336 Darius III start of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 30]. Darius III becomes king of Persia and Pharaoh of Egypt.
335 Aristotle teaches at Athens.
334 Alexander the Great begins his conquests.
334 May The Battle of the River Granicus is the 1st of 3 major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. It was here, near the site of Troy, in Northwestern Asia Minor, that Alexander defeats the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor, including a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes. Alexander aquires half of Asia Minor.
333 Antigonus I Monophthalmus appointed governor of Greater Phrygia. He was primarily responsible for defending Alexander’s lines of supply and communication during the latter’s extended campaign against the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Following Alexander’s victory at Issus, the Persian mercenary commander Memnon of Rhodes ordered a counter-attack into Asia Minor in an attempt to sever Alexander’s lines of supply and communication; however, Antigonus defeated the Persian forces in three separate battles.
333 November 5 The Battle of Issus occurs in southern Anatolia, between the Hellenic League led by Alexander the Great and the Achaemenid Empire, led by Darius III, in the 2nd great battle of Alexander’s conquest of Asia. Alexander controls southern Asia Minor.
332 January – July Siege of Tyre by the Macedonians under Alexander the Great. The Siege of Tyre was orchestrated by Alexander the Great during his campaigns against the Persians. The Macedonian army was unable to capture the city, which was a strategic coastal base on the Mediterranean Sea, through conventional means because it was on an island and had walls right up to the sea. Alexander responded to this problem by first blockading and besieging Tyre for 7 months, and then by building a causeway that allowed him to breach the fortifications. Alexander captures the Levant.
332 When Alexander destroyed Tyre, most of the towns on the route to Egypt quickly capitulated. However, Alexander met with resistance at Gaza. The stronghold was heavily fortified and built on a hill, requiring a siege. After 3 unsuccessful assaults, the stronghold fell, but not before Alexander had received a serious shoulder wound. As in Tyre, men of military age were put to the sword and the women and children were sold into slavery. Alexander then advanced on Egypt in late 332 B.C., where he was regarded as a liberator. During his stay in Egypt, he founded Alexandria-by-Egypt, which would become the prosperous capital of the Ptolemaic Kingdom after his death.
332 Khabebesh end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 30].
331 At Megalopolis, Alexander’s regent Antipater defeats the Spartans, who had refused to join the Corinthian League or recognize Macedonian supremacy.
331 October 1 The Battle of Gaugamela [Battle of Arbela]. Alexander’s army of the Hellenic League meets the Persian army of Darius III near Gaugamela. Heavily outnumbered, Alexander emerges victorious and this leads to the fall of the Achaemenid Empire. Decisive Greek victory, Persian military capabilities are crippled. Alexander wins Babylon, half of Persia and all parts of Mesopotamia not already under his control.
331 October 21 / 22 Alexander conquers Babylon.
330 July Darius III end of reign [Egyptian Dynasty 30]. Darius III of Persia assassinated by Artaxerxes V Bessus. Persian empire falls with the death of Darius III – empire succeeded by Alexander the Great.
330 Following the Persian army’s defeat by Alexander the Great, Artaxerxes V Bessus – a prominent Persian Satrap of Bactria in Persia becomes self-proclaimed king of Kings of Persia after killing his predecessor and relative [Darius III].
329 Summer Artaxerxes V Bessus dies; he is executed by Alexander the Great.
329 Spitamenes, a Sogdian warlord and the leader of the uprising in Sogdiana and Bactria against Alexander the Great, besieges the Macedonian garrison in Maracanda.
328 December Spitamenes is defeated by Alexander’s general Coenus at the Battle of Gabai. Spitamenes’ wife kills him and sends his head to Alexander, suing for peace and effectively dissolving the Spitamenes’ army.
c. 327 As a symbolic gesture of uniting East and West, Alexander the Great marries Roxana to cement relations with his new satrapies. He now turns to the Indian sub-continent.
326 Alexander seeks to reach the “ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea” and invades India in 326 B.C., winning an important victory over the Pauravas at the Battle of the Hydaspes [now the Punjab Province of Pakistan]. He might well have advanced down the Ganges to Bengal had not his army of homesick troops, convinced that they were at the end of the world, refused to go any further; he eventually turned back.
326 Claudius builds the Appian Way to move Roman troops more easily to the war.
323 Alexander claims to be the son of Zeus.
323 The Empire of Greece is now at the height of its power after conquering the Persian Empire. The empire spans 3 continents [Asia, Africa and Europe] across millions of square miles.
323 Alexander III (the Great) reign end – king of Macedon [Macedonia].
323 June 10 / 11 Alexander the Great [age 32] dies of a fever [typhoid fever?] in Babylon [the city that he planned to establish as his capital] and is buried in Alexandria.
323 Alexander’s empire is divided between his 4 chief generals i.e. into 4 kingdoms, the most important being Seleucus in Asia and Ptolemy in Africa. In the division Israel became a part of Syria, under the authority of Seleucus.
323 Ptolemy I Soter takes Egypt.
323 Philip Arrhidaeus start of reign [Macedonian Period].
320 Antipater becomes regent of all of Alexander the Great’s Empire.
320 Ptolemy I Soter seizes Palestine; Egypt takes Libya.
319 Antipater dies [age 77 / 78] in Macedonia. Antipater was a Macedonian general and statesman under kings Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great, and father of King Cassander.
318 Israel is ruled by Ptolemy I Soter, the ruler of Egypt, and he and his successors ruled Israel for 120 years.
316 Philip Arrhidaeus end of reign [Macedonian Period].
316 Alexander IV start of reign [Macedonian Period].
315 Siege of Tyre by Antigonus I Monophthalmus starts.
314 Siege of Tyre by Antigonus I Monophthalmus ends.
312 After fleeing Babylon in 321 B.C., Seleucus I Nicator returns to Babylon. Start of the Seleucid Empire – a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty until 63 B.C.. It was founded following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great. Seleucus received Babylonia and, from there, expanded his dominions to include much of Alexander’s near eastern territories. At the height of its power, it included central Anatolia, Persia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, and what is now Kuwait, Afghanistan, and parts of Pakistan and Turkmenistan.
c. 310 Roxana, Alexander the Great’s wife, dies.
306 Antigonus I Monophthalmus (Ancient Greek: ????????? ? ??????????? Antigonos ó Monophthalmos, Antigonus the One-eyed, 382-301 B.C.), son of Philip from Elimeia, was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and satrap under Alexander the Great. During his early life he served under Philip II, and he was a major figure in the Wars of the Diadochi after Alexander’s death, declaring himself king in 306 B.C. and establishing the Antigonid dynasty.
304 Alexander IV end of reign [Macedonian Period].
304 Ptolemy I Soter start of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
301 Antigonus I Monophthalmus dies [age 81]. Predecessor Alexander IV Successor Demetrius I
301 Mayan civilization spreads South. Seleucus I Nicator rules Syria. Ptolemy I rules Palestine & Egypt.
c. 300 Rome becomes a major world power in the western Mediterranean.
287 Archimedes of Syracuse born.
285 Ptolemy II Philadelphius becomes king of Egypt.
285 Between 285 B.C. and 130 B.C. the Septuagint is translated.
285 Ptolemy I Soter end of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
285 Ptolemy II Philadelphos start of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
280 Antiochus I Soter becomes king of Syria.
278 Arsinoe II start of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
275 Ptolemy of Egypt invades Syria.
274 The first Syrian – Egyptian war begins. A series of six wars between the Seleucid Empire and the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt.
274 Hinduism codified in India.
271 The first Syrian – Egyptian war ends.
270 Arsinoe II end of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
264 Rome’s first Punic war against Carthage [a Phoenician city in north Africa] begins. Punic Wars fought by Rome against the Carthaginian general Hannibal. These wars continue until 146 B.C. with Rome gaining control of Sicily, parts of Spain and north Africa.
261 Antiochus II Theos [the God] king of Syria.
260 The second Syrian – Egyptian war begins.
253 The second Syrian – Egyptian war ends.
252 Antiochus II marries Bernice, daughter of Ptolemy II.
247 The Parthian Empire [Arsacid Empire] is founded [dissolved in 224 B.C.]. Judea is part of Ptolemaic Empire [to 198 B.C.].
246 Seleucus II Callinicus becomes king of Syria.
246 Ptolemy III Euergetes becomes king of Egypt.
246 The third Syrian – Egyptian war begins.
246 Ptolemy II Philadelphos end of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
246 Ptolemy III Euergetes I start of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
246 Berenike II start of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
245 Ptolemy invades Syria.
241 Rome gains Sicily from Carthage.
241 Seleucus II Callinicus invades Egypt.
241 The third Syrian – Egyptian war ends.
225 Romans defeat Celts in Italy.
223 Antiochus III the Great becomes king of Syria and ruler of Babylon [Seleucid Empire].
222 Ptolemy III Euergetes end of reign as king of Egypt.
222 Ptolemy IV Philopator start of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
221 Ptolemy IV Philopater becomes king of Egypt.
221 Ptolemy III Euergetes I end of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
221 Berenike II end of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
219 Antiochus III the Great invades Egypt.
219 The fourth Syrian – Egyptian war begins.
218 Rome’s 2nd Punic war against Carthage.
217 The fourth Syrian – Egyptian war ends.
217 Hannibal invades Italy Ptolemy IV invades Syria; Battle of Raphia.
215 Hannibal defeated by Marcellus.
214 Rome’s first Macedonian war begins. A series of 4 main war conflicts fought by the Roman Republic and its Greek allies in the eastern Mediterranean against several different major Greek kingdoms.
214 China begins the construction of the Great Wall.
212 Archimedes of Syracuse died age 75 years.
211 Macedonia and Carthage fight Rome.
206 Rome drives Carthage out of Spain.
205 Rome’s first Macedonian war ends.
205 Ptolemy IV Philopator end of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
205 Ptolemy V Epiphanes start of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
205 Harwennefer start of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
203 Ptolemy V [ Epiphanes ] becomes king of Egypt; Hannibal recalled to Carthage but they are defeated, ending 2nd Punic War.
202 Rome defeats Hannibal at the battle of Zama in North Africa
202 The fifth Syrian – Egyptian war begins.
200 Rome’s second Macedonian war begins.
200 The Mishna begins to appear among the Jews.
199 Harwennefer end of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
199 Ankhwennefer start of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
198 Judea part of Seleucid Empire. The Seleucid’s rule Israel with great cruelty until 166 B.C..
196 Rome’s second Macedonian war ends.
196 The Rosetta Stone is carved. The Rosetta Stone is a text written by a group of priests in Egypt to honour the Egyptian pharaoh. It lists all of the things that the pharaoh has done that are good for the priests and the people of Egypt.
195 The fifth Syrian – Egyptian war ends.
194 Cleopatra I [f.] start of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
193 Ptolemy V marries Cleopatra, daughter of Antiochus III the Great.
190 Antiochus III the Great is defeated by Romans at Magnesia.
187 Seleucus IV Philopator becomes king of Syria.
186 Ankhwennefer end of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
183 Hannibal commits suicide.
181 Ptolemy VI Philomater becomes king of Egypt.
180 Ptolemy V Epiphanes end of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
180 Ptolemy VI Philometor start of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
176 Cleopatra I end of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
175 Antiochus IV Epiphanes becomes king of Syria.
175 Cleopatra II [f.] start of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
172 Rome’s third Macedonian war begins.
171 Ptolemy VII becomes co-regent of Egypt with Ptolemy VI . Rome’s third Macedonian war begins.
171 Mithridates I begins the conquest of Babylonia and Media, adding them to Persia and Bactra to form the Parthian Empire.
170 Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II start of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
170 The sixth Syrian – Egyptian war begins.
169 Antiochus IV Epiphanes captures Jerusalem.
168 The sixth Syrian – Egyptian war ends. The last in a series of six wars between the Seleucid Empire and the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt. These conflicts drained the material and manpower of both parties and led to their eventual destruction and conquest by Rome and Parthia.
168 Rome’s third Macedonian war ends.
168 The Romans interfere in Antiochus’s war with Egypt and prevent his capturing Alexandria. Antiochus IV Epiphanes pollutes the Temple in Jerusalem and suspends the sacrifices of the Jews.
166 Matthias [Maccabeus – a Hasmonean] dies. His son Judas then leads the Jews in a revolt against Antiochus IV Epiphanes. The Maccabees revolt and throw off their yoke. Israel is now virtually independent until 37 B.C..
165 The Jerusalem Temple repaired and cleansed.
164 Antiochus IV Epiphanes dies.
160 Judas Maccabeus is killed in battle against the Syrians; his brother Jonathan leads the Jews to 143 B.C.; he and the Hasmoneans enter an alliance with Rome against the Syrians.
157 Judea becomes an independent principality.
154 The Jews in Egypt build a temple at Leontopolis.
150 Rome’s fourth Macedonian war begins.
149 Rome’s third Punic war against Carthage begins.
148 Rome’s fourth Macedonian war ends.
146 Punic Wars fought by Rome end with the Romans destroying Carthage.
146 Greece is made a Roman Province.
145 Ptolemy VI Philometor end of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
145 Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator start of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
144 Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator end of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
143 Simon Maccabeus leads Jews to 134 B.C..
141 Jews liberate Jerusalem; Judea proclaimed an independent kingdom.
134 Simon Maccabeus is murdered by his son-in-law Ptolemy, and is succeeded as high priest and king in Jerusalem by his son John Hyrcanus I.
133 Rome begins to expand her empire eastward.
130 The Pharisees begin to emerge as a sect – liberal interpreters of the Law using oral traditions to augment the written text.
c. 130 Harsiese start of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
c. 130 Harsiese end of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
124 Mithridates II [the Great] conquers Scythia, adds it to the Parthian Empire, and makes a treaty with Rome.
120 Hyrcanus repudiates the Pharisees and declares himself a Sadducee – strict interpreters of the Law, but seeking political dominion over all.
116 Ptolemy VIII dies; empire splits up.
116 Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II end of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
116 Ptolemy IX Soter II start of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
115 Cleopatra II end of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
106 Cicero born.
90 Revolt of the Pharisees in Judea.
88 Rome’s first Mithridatic war begins.
83 Rome’s second Mithridatic war begins.
80 Ptolemy IX Soter II end of reign [Ptolemaic Period].
74 Rome’s third Mithridatic war begins.
70 Virgil [Aeneid] born [died 19 B.C.].
69 Cleopatra [f.] is born in Alexandria, Egypt.
65 Rome invades Syria, conquers Palestine; Horace born [died 8 B.C.].
64 Pompey captures Jerusalem; leaves the Maccabean high priest Hyrcanus II in power with Antipater as civil adviser.
63 End of the Seleucid Empire which started in 312 B.C..
63 September 23 Gaius Octavius [Octavian [Augustus] is born.
61 Julius Caesar wins major victory in Spain.
60 The first Triumvirate at Rome [Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey].
59 Julius Caesar becomes proconsul; Pompey marries Julia, daughter of Caesar.
58 Julius Caesar conquers Gaul.
54 Julius Caesar invades Britain.
51 Cleopatra is Ptolemaic Queen of Egypt. Cleopatra originally ruled jointly with her father Ptolemy XII Auletes [who dies in 51 B.C.], and then with her brothers Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, whom she married in keeping with Egyptian tradition, but eventually she becomes sole ruler. As queen, she consummates a liaison with Julius Caesar that solidifies her grip upon the throne.
49 Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon to start civil war against Pompey, who flees.
48 Pompey assassinated in Egypt.
45 Julian calendar introduced; adopts Octavian.
44 Julius Caesar becomes dictator of Rome for life. Julius Caesar is assassinated – murdered on the Ides of March and cremated in the Forum.
43 The second Triumvirate at Rome [Anthony, Lepidus, and Octavian].
42 Triumvirate defeats Cassius and Brutus.
37 Herod the Great, escaping the clutches of Cleopatra, solicits Antony to make him king of Judea; this is done by the proclamation of the Roman Senate; He replaces the inept son of Salome, Antigonus. Herod rules to 1 A.D. – 37 years.
37 Herod drives out Antigonus, captures Jerusalem after 3 month siege and massive slaughter; Antigonus is slain, ending the Hasmoneans.
31 September 2 Battle of Actium. Anthony is slain and Octavian becomes master of the Roman world. Octavian (later Augustus), Caesar’s adopted son, ends the struggle for power when he triumphs over the forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra.
30 August 12 Cleopatra [age 39] dies in Alexandria, Egypt.
30 With Cleopatra’s death Egypt becomes the Roman province of Aegyptus.
30 Shammai, Hillel, and Philo of Alexandria all flourish.
27 Final War of the Roman Republic – the Roman Empire is established and is dissolved 1480 years later in 1453 A.D.
27 January 27 Octavian [Augustus] is emperor for 41 years, until his death [age 75] on August 19th 14 A.D.
21 Octavian assumes the title of Augustus.
20 Herod begins to rebuild the Jerusalem Temple.
7 Saturninus replaced by Varus as governor in Syria.
5 Augustus orders census throughout the region; Quirinius as military ruler conducts his 1st census [Luke 2:1 – 3].
3 September 11 6:18 pm – 7:39 pm. THE BIRTH OF JESUS. First day of Jewish New Year (Tishri 1). New Moon in Royal Constellation Leo (Judah). On September 11, 3 B.C., sunset was at 6:18 pm and moonset at 7:39 pm. Jesus Christ was born on September 11, 3 B.C. sometime in that 81 minute span of time between 6:18 pm and 7:39 pm [Jerusalem time]. In Gematria 81 = Holy Angels.
c. 1 A.D. January 18 Herod the Great dies; kingdom split among his sons.